Born on August 10

787 Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi an astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad. He was not a major innovator and as an astrologer he was not intellectually rigorous. Nevertheless, he wrote a number of practical manuals on astrology that profoundly influenced Muslim intellectual history and, through translations, that of western Europe and Byzantium
941 Lê Hoàn an emperor of Đại Cồ Việt and the founder of the Anterior Lê Dynasty.
1267 James II of Aragon the King of Sicily from 1285 to 1296 and King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. In 1297 he was granted the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica. He used the Latin title Iacobus Dei gracia rex Aragonum, Valencie, Sardinie, et Corsice ac comes Barchinone. He was the second son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily
1294 Latino Malabranca Orsini an Italian cardinal-nephew of Pope Nicholas III.
1296 John of Bohemia the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland. He was the eldest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and his wife Margaret of Brabant. He is well known for having died while fighting in the Battle of Crécy at age 50, after having been blind for a decade
1360 Francesco Zabarella an Italian cardinal and canonist.
1377 Afonso Duke of Braganza the first Duke of Braganza and the eighth Count of Barcelos. He would start a dynasty, the House of Braganza, that would end up being the most powerful and wealthy in all of Portugal. His descendents would go on to become high-ranking nobles, imperial officials, and even the Kings of Portugal and the Emperors of Brazil
1388 Thomas Ebendorfer an Austrian historian, professor, and statesman.
1397 Albert II of Germany King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death. He was also King of Bohemia, elected King of Germany as Albert II, duke of Luxembourg and, as Albert V, archduke of Austria from 1404
1466 Francesco II Gonzaga Marquess of Mantua the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua from 1484 until his death.
1489 Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck a German statesman, one of the preeminent promoters of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.
1520 Madeleine of Valois a French princess who became Queen of Scots as the first spouse of King James V.
1536 Caspar Olevian a significant German Reformed theologian during the Protestant Reformation and along with Zacharius Ursinus was said to be co-author of the Heidelberg Catechism. That theory of authorship has been questioned by some modern scholarship
1549 Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin a Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
1560 Hieronymus Praetorius a north German composer and organist of the late Renaissance and very early Baroque eras. He was not related to the much more famous Michael Praetorius, though the Praetorius family had many distinguished musicians throughout the 16th and 17th centuries
1570 Philip Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the second son of Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Christine of Hesse.
1602 Gilles de Roberval born at Roberval, Oise, near Beauvais, France. His name was originally Gilles Personne or Gilles Personier, with Roberval the place of his birth
1645 Eusebio Kino now a part of northern Italy. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the region then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico and southern Arizona in the United States. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that Baja California is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas
1653 Louis-Guillaume Pécour a French dancer and choreographer. He is most well known for his work with the Académie Royale de Musique
1673 Johann Conrad Dippel a German pietist theologian, alchemist and physician.
1686 Georg Christian Fürst von Lobkowitz an Austrian Generalfeldmarschall.
1702 Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin a relative of Fyodor Apraksin, commanded the Russian armies during the Seven Years' War. He should not be confused with his son Stepan Stepanovich Apraksin, who had a notable military career in the service of Catherine the Great
1709 Jean-Jacques Lefranc Marquis de Pompignan a French man of letters and erudition, who published a considerable output of theatrical work, poems, literary criticism, and polemics; treatises on archeology, nature, travel and many other subjects; and a wide selection of highly regarded translations of the classics and other works from several European languages including English.
1710 Princess Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen the daughter of Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha. She was the wife off Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
1727 Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck the son of Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and Princess Sophie of Hesse-Philippsthal.
1729 William Howe 5th Viscount Howe a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who enjoyed distinguished military careers
1734 Naungdawgyi king of Konbaung Dynasty of Burma from 1760 to 1763. He was a top military commander in his father Alaungpaya's reunification campaigns of the country. As king, he spent much of his short reign suppressing multiple rebellions across the newly founded kingdom from Ava and Toungoo to Martaban and Chiang Mai. The king suddenly died less than a year after he had successfully suppressed the rebellions. He was succeeded by his younger brother Hsinbyushin
1737 Anton Losenko a Ukrainian neoclassical painter and academician who lived in Imperial Russia and who specialized in historical subjects and portraits. He was one of the founders of the Imperial Russian historical movement in painting
1740 Leopold III Duke of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1751 until 1807 he was Reigning prince of the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau and from 1807 the first Duke of the Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau
1740 Samuel Arnold (composer) an English composer and organist.
1744 Alexandrine Le Normant d'Étiolles born during the "Scenes of Metz", in which the public was scandalised to learn of the adultery of her stepfather-to-be, Louis XV of France.
1749 Christian August Lorentzen a Danish painter. He was the instructor of Martinus Rørbye
1750 Andrei Budberg a Russian Empire diplomat who served as Foreign Minister in 1806–07.
1750 Daniel Gottlob Türk a notable composer, organist, and music professor of the Classical Period.
1753 Edmund Randolph an American attorney, the seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General.
1753 George Cranfield Berkeley a highly experienced, popular, yet controversial naval officer and politician in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Britain. Serving on several ships, Cranfield-Berkeley saw action at all three Battles of Ushant, commanded fleets in the West Indies and off Ireland and governed the supply routes to Portugal and Spain which kept Wellington's armies in the field during the Peninsula War. He also enjoyed an extensive political career, reforming military practices in Britain and participating in several prominent scandals including feuds with Charles James Fox and Hugh Palliser
1755 Narayanrao Peshwa the fifth Peshwa or ruler of the Maratha Empire from November 1772 until his murder in August 1773.He married Gangabai Sathe who later gave birth to Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa.
1758 Armand Gensonné a French politician.
1780 Pierre François Marie Auguste Dejean a French entomologist. A soldier of fortune during the Napoleonic Wars, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant General and aide de campe to Napoleon. He amassed vast collections of Coleoptera, some even collected on the battlefield at Waterloo. He listed 22,399 species in his cabinets in 1837—at the time, the greatest collection of Coleoptera in the world. In 1802, he began publishing a catalogue of his vast collection, including 22,000 species names. Dejean was an opponent of the Principle of Priority in nomenclature. "I have made it a rule always to preserve the name most generally used , and not the oldest one; because it seems to me that general usage should always be followed and that it is harmful to change what has already been established". Dejean acted accordingly and often introduced in litteris names, given by himself to replace those already published by other authors. They became invalid. Dejean was president of the Société entomologique de France for the year 1840. In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He died on March 17, 1845
1780 Friedrich Joseph Haass the "holy doctor of Moscow." As a member of Moscow's governmental prison committee, he spent 25 years until the end of his life to humanize the penal system. During the last nine years before his death he spent all of his assets to run a hospital for homeless people. 20,000 people attended his funeral at the Vvedenskoye Cemetery
1782 Vicente Guerrero one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico. Of Mestizo and African ancestry, he was the grandfather of the Mexican politician and intellectual Vicente Riva Palacio
1784 Diogo Antônio Feijó a Brazilian politician and Catholic priest, he was for a period the most powerful man in the Empire of Brazil, he was the only regent of the empire from October 1835 to September 1837, beside members of the Imperial family he was the first to ever hold this position alone, the other was his appointed successor after his resignation, the Marquis of Olinda, at the time Emperor Dom Pedro II was still a minor.
1790 George McDuffie the 55th Governor of South Carolina and a member of the United States Senate.
1793 Joseph Franz von Allioli a Roman Catholic theologian and orientalist.
1794 Leopold Zunz a German Reform rabbi and writer, the founder of what has been termed "Jewish Studies" or "Judaic Studies" , the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual. Zunz's historical investigations and contemporary writings had an important influence on contemporary Judaism
1797 Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (naturalist) a Finnish entomologist and governor of the Viipuri province in the Grand Duchy of Finland.
1797 Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini a German botanist, Professor of Botany at the University of Munich. He worked extensively with Philipp Franz von Siebold, assisting in describing his collections from Japan, but also described plants discovered in other areas, including Mexico. Siebold wrote his Flora Japonica in collaboration with Zuccarini. It first appeared in 1835, but the work was not completed until after his death, finished in 1870 by A. Miquel , director of the Rijksherbarium in Leiden
1800 Otto August Rosenberger a Baltic German astronomer from Tukums in Courland.
1801 Paul Demetrius Kotzebue a Baltic-German Russian officer, one of 18 children of German dramatist August von Kotzebue, and Governor-general of Warsaw under Czar Alexander II, who had freed the serfs in 1861 and sold Alaska to the United States in 1867. The oceanic identation just north of Alaska's Seward Peninsula is named Kotzebue Sound, in honor of the Count's brother, explorer Otto von Kotzebue. The Kotzebue family had originated in Kassebau
1801 Christian Hermann Weisse a German Protestant religious philosopher.