Died on August 11

223 Jia Xu an advisor to the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He previously served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue and Zhang Xiu before finally joining Cao Cao. During the Three Kingdoms era, he served as an official in the state of Cao Wei under Cao Pi, Cao Cao's son and successor
353 Magnentius a usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.
1204 Guttorm of Norway the King of Norway from January to August 1204, during the Norwegian civil war era. As a grandson of King Sverre, he was proclaimed king by the Birkebeiner party when he was just four years old. Although obviously not in control of the events surrounding him, Guttorm's accession to the throne under the effective regency of Haakon the Crazy led to renewed conflict between the Birkebeiner and the Bagler parties, the latter supported militarily by Valdemar II of Denmark
1253 Clare of Assisi an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life—the first monastic rule known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares
1259 Möngke Khan the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251 to August 11, 1259. He was the first Great Khan from the Toluid line and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Nanzhao. He was given the Chinese-style temple name Emperor Xianzong of Yuan by his successor Kublai Khan, who founded the Yuan Dynasty
1456 John Hunyadi a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century. According to most contemporary sources, he was son of a noble family of Romanian ancestry. He mastered his military skills on the southern borderlands of the Kingdom of Hungary that were exposed to Ottoman attacks. Appointed voivode of Transylvania and head of a number of southern counties, he assumed responsibility for the defense of the frontiers in 1441
1464 Nicholas of Cusa a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer. One of the first German proponents of Renaissance humanism, he made spiritual and political contributions in European history. A notable example of this is his mystical or spiritual writings on "learned ignorance," as well as his participation in power struggles between Rome and the German states of the Holy Roman Empire
1494 Hans Memling a German-born painter who moved to Flanders and worked in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. He spent some time in the Brussels workshop of Rogier van der Weyden, and after Rogier's death in 1464, Memling was made a citizen of Bruges, where he became one of the leading artists, painting both portraits and diptychs for personal devotion and several large religious works, seamlessly continuing the style he learned in his youth
1519 Johann Tetzel a Roman Catholic German Dominican friar and preacher. In addition, he was a Grand Inquisitor of Heresy to Poland, and later became the Grand Commissioner for indulgences in Germany. Tetzel was reputedly known for granting indulgences in exchange for money, which allow a remission of temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven, a position heavily challenged by Martin Luther
1563 Bartolomé de Escobedo a Spanish composer of the Renaissance.
1578 Pedro Nunes a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian family. Nunes, considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time, is best known for his contributions in the technical field of navigation, which was crucial to the Portuguese period of discoveries. He was the first to propose the idea of a loxodrome and was also the inventor of several measuring devices, including the nonius , named after his Latin surname
1596 Hamnet Shakespeare the only son of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway, and the fraternal twin of Judith Shakespeare. He died at age 11. Some Shakespearean scholars speculate on the relationship between Hamnet and his father's later play Hamlet, as well as on possible connections between Hamnet's death and the writing of King John, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, and Twelfth Night
1614 Lavinia Fontana an Italian painter. She is regarded as the first woman artist, working within the same sphere as her male counterparts, outside a court or convent
1634 Frederick Ulrich Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1613 until his death.
1656 Ottavio Piccolomini an Italian nobleman whose military career included service as a Spanish general and then as a field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire.
1680 Ivan Sirko a Cossack military leader, Koshovyi Otaman of the Zaporozhian Host and putative co-author of the famous semi-legendary Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks that inspired a major painting by the 19th-century artist Ilya Repin.
1699 Friedrich von Canitz a German poet and diplomat. He was one of the few German poets of his era that Frederick the Great enjoyed
1703 Anna Isabella Gonzaga a Duchess consort of Mantua and Montferrat and heir of the Duchy of Guastalla and Luzzara Reggiolo; married in 1671 to Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat. She was the regent of Mantua during the War of the Spanish Succession
1712 Magdalena Sibylla of Hesse-Darmstadt regent of the Duchy of Württemberg from 1677 to 1693, and was a prominent German composer of baroque hymns.
1728 William Sherard an English botanist. Next to John Ray, he was considered to be one of the outstanding English botanists of his day
1736 Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt a Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, Imperial Field marshal and Governor of Mantua.
1739 François de La Rochefoucauld Marquis de Montandre a British soldier, who arrived in England as a Huguenot refugee. After serving as a junior officer during the Williamite War in Ireland, he was given command of Francis du Cambon's Regiment of Foot and led his regiment in the Low Countries during the Nine Years' War. He also fought at the Siege of Badajoz and at the Battle of Alcantara during the War of the Spanish Succession. He went on to be Master General of the Ordnance in Ireland
1768 Peter Collinson (botanist) a Fellow of the Royal Society, an avid gardener, and the middleman for an international exchange of scientific ideas in mid-18th century London. He is best known for his horticultural friendship with John Bartram and his correspondence with Benjamin Franklin about electricity
1774 Charles-François Tiphaigne de la Roche a French author.
1778 Augustus Toplady an Anglican cleric and hymn writer. He was a major Calvinist opponent of John Wesley. He is best remembered as the author of the hymn "Rock of Ages". Three of his other hymns – "A Debtor to Mercy Alone", "Deathless Principle, Arise" and "Object of My First Desire" – are still occasionally sung today, though all three are far less popular than "Rock of Ages"
1802 Franciszek Kareu Very Rev. Franciszek Kareu, S.J. was Temporary Vicar General of the Society of Jesus in Russia from 1799 to 1801. After Pope Pius VII's official approval of the Jesuits' existence in Russia, he was declared Superior General of the Society of Jesus
1813 Henry James Pye an English poet. Pye was Poet Laureate from 1790 until his death. He was the first poet laureate to receive a fixed salary of £27 instead of the historic tierce of Canary wine
1818 Ivan Kulibin a Russian mechanic and inventor. He was born in Nizhny Novgorod in the family of a trader. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools. Soon, clock mechanisms became a special interest of his. His realizations as well as his prolific imagination inspired the work of many
1844 Jernej Kopitar a Slovene linguist and philologist working in Vienna. He also worked as the Imperial censor for Slovene literature in Vienna. He is perhaps best known for his role in the Serbian language reform started by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, where he played a vital role in supporting the reform by using his reputation and influence as a Slavic philologist
1851 Lorenz Oken a German naturalist, botanist, biologist, and ornithologist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach , Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent , and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere. This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany
1854 Macedonio Melloni an Italian physicist, notable for demonstrating that radiant heat has similar physical properties to those of light.
1861 Catherine Hayes (soprano) a world-famous Irish soprano of the Victorian era. According to London's Daily Express, "Hayes was the 'Madonna' of her day; she was the 19th-century operatic equivalent of the world's most famous pop star."
1863 Mikhail Shchepkin the most famous Russian Empire actor of the 19th century.
1868 Halfdan Kjerulf a Norwegian composer.
1868 Thaddeus Stevens a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s. A fierce opponent of slavery and discrimination against African-Americans, Stevens sought to secure their rights during Reconstruction, in opposition to President Andrew Johnson. As chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee during the American Civil War, he played a major part in the war's financing
1872 Andrew Smith (zoologist) a Scottish surgeon, explorer, ethnologist and zoologist. He is considered the father of zoology in South Africa having described many species across a wide range of groups in his major work, Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa
1872 Lowell Mason a leading figure in American church music, the composer of over 1600 hymn tunes, many of which are often sung today. His most well-known tunes include his arrangement of "Joy to the World" and "Bethany", his setting of the hymn, "Nearer, My God, to Thee". He was largely responsible for introducing music into American public schools, and is considered to be the first important music educator in the United States. In the last part of his career, as music director of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York City, he radically transformed American church music from a practice of having professional choirs and accompaniment to congregational singing accompanied by organ music
1879 Jan Swerts a Belgian painter of historical subjects and portraits who worked on many publicly funded commissions. He played a major role in introducing German Romantic historical painting into Belgium. His fresco’s using oil paint heralded a revival of a colouristic style derived from Rubens and the Flemish Baroque combined with historical and psychological realism
1881 Jane Digby an English aristocrat who lived a scandalous life of romantic adventure, spanning decades and two continents. She had four husbands and many lovers, including King Ludwig I of Bavaria, his son King Otto of Greece, statesman Felix Schwarzenberg, and a Greek brigand general. She died in Damascus, Syria as the wife of Arab Sheikh Medjuel el Mezrab, who was 20 years her junior
1885 Charles Wright (botanist) an American botanist.
1886 Lydia Koidula an Estonian poet. Her sobriquet means 'Lydia of the Dawn' in Estonian. It was given to her by the writer Carl Robert Jakobson. She is also frequently referred to as Koidulaulik – 'Singer of the Dawn'
1886 Ivan Unkovsky an admiral, explorer and surveyor of the Imperial Russian Navy. After his navy years, Unkovsky participated in the opposition against Tsar Alexander II's legal system and was exiled from Russia in 1861
1889 Hans Hendrik a Greenlandic Arctic traveller and interpreter, born in the southern settlement of Fiskernæs.
1890 John Henry Newman an important figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century. He was known nationally by the mid-1830s
1892 Ladislav Stroupežnický a renowned Czech author, playwright, and dramatist, best known for the frequently staged play Naši furianti.
1892 Enrico Betti an Italian mathematician, now remembered mostly for his 1871 paper on topology that led to the later naming after him of the Betti numbers. He worked also on the theory of equations, giving early expositions of Galois theory. He also discovered Betti's theorem, a result in the theory of elasticity
1900 Franz Betz a German bass-baritone opera singer who sang at the Berlin State Opera from 1859 to 1897. He was particularly known for his performances in operas by Richard Wagner and created the role of Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg
1901 Shō Tai the last king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom and the head of the Ryūkyū Domain. His reign saw greatly increased interactions with travelers from abroad, particularly from Europe and the United States, as well as the eventual end of the kingdom and its annexation by Japan as Ryūkyū Domain
1903 Eugenio María de Hostos a Puerto Rican educator, philosopher, intellectual, lawyer, sociologist, and Puerto Rican independence advocate.
1908 Khudiram Bose a Bengali revolutionary, one of the youngest revolutionaries early in the Indian independence movement. At the time of his hanging, he was 18 years, 8 months 8 days old