Died on August 12

30 Cleopatra the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, only shortly survived by her son, Caesarion as pharaoh.
792 Jænberht a medieval monk, and later the abbot, of St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury who was named Archbishop of Canterbury in 765. As archbishop, he had a difficult relationship with King Offa of Mercia, who at one point confiscated lands from the archbishopric. By 787, some of the bishoprics under Canterbury's supervision were transferred to the control of the newly created Archbishopric of Lichfield, although it is not clear if Jænberht ever recognised its legitimacy. Besides the issue with Lichfield, Jænberht also presided over church councils in England. He died in 792 and was considered a saint after his death
875 Louis II of Italy the King of Italy and Roman Emperor from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I until 855, after which he ruled alone. Louis's usual title was imperator augustus , but he used imperator Romanorum after his conquest of Bari in 871, which led to poor relations with Byzantium. He was called imperator Italiae in West Francia while the Byzantines called him Basileus Phrangias. The chronicler Andreas Bergomatis, who is the main source for Louis's activities in southern Italy, notes that "after his death a great tribulation came to Italy."
1156 Blanche of Navarre Queen of Castile Queen of Castile, the daughter of King García Ramírez of Navarre and his first wife Margaret of L'Aigle.
1183 Margaret of Navarre the queen consort of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I and the regent during the minority of her son, William II.
1204 Berthold Duke of Merania the Count of Andechs and first Duke of Merania , that is, the seacoast of Dalmatia and Istria. In 1188 he was appointed as margrave of Istria and from 1180 to 1182 he was duke of Croatia and Dalmatia
1295 Charles Martel of Anjou the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary, the daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary.
1308 Edmund de Stafford 1st Baron Stafford the son of Nicholas de Stafford, who was summoned to parliament by writ on 6 February 1299 by King Edward I.
1319 Rudolf I Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1294 until 1317.
1335 Prince Moriyoshi a son of Emperor Go-Daigo and Minamoto no Chikako executed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi in 1335.
1399 Andrei of Polotsk the eldest son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk. He was Duke of Pskov and Polotsk. As the eldest son of the Grand Duke, Andrei claimed his right to the throne after his father's death in 1377. Algirdas left Jogaila, his eldest son with his second wife Uliana of Tver, as the rightful heir. Andrei's rivalry with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, eventually led to his demise
1399 Spytek of Melsztyn (died 1399) a Polish nobleman.
1424 Yongle Emperor the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
1464 John Capgrave an English historian, hagiographer and scholastic theologian.
1469 Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers an English nobleman, best remembered as the father of Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville and the maternal grandfather of Edward V and the maternal great-grandfather of Henry VIII.
1484 Pope Sixtus IV Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. He also established the Vatican Archives. Sixtus furthered the agenda of the Spanish Inquisition and annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. He was famed for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi Conspiracy
1551 Paul Speratus a Catholic priest who became a Protestant preacher and song-writer. In 1523, he helped Martin Luther to create the First Lutheran hymnal, published in 1524 and called Achtliederbuch
1577 Thomas Smith (diplomat) an English scholar and diplomat.
1588 Alfonso Ferrabosco the elder an Italian composer. While mostly famous as the solitary Italian madrigalist working in England, and the one mainly responsible for the growth of the madrigal there, he also composed much sacred music. He also may have been a spy for Elizabeth I while he was in Italy
1602 Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, and a Persian translation of the Bible. He was also one of the Nine Jewels of Akbar's royal court and the brother of Faizi, the poet laureate of emperor Akbar
1604 John I Count Palatine of Zweibrücken Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken during 1569-1604.
1612 Giovanni Gabrieli an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms
1633 Jacopo Peri often called the inventor of opera. He wrote the first work to be called an opera today, Dafne , and also the first opera to have survived to the present day, Euridice
1638 Johannes Althusius a German jurist and Calvinist political philosopher.
1647 Matthew Hopkins an English witch-hunter whose career flourished during the time of the English Civil War. He claimed to hold the office of Witchfinder General, although that title was never bestowed by Parliament. His witch-hunts mainly took place in the eastern counties of Suffolk, Essex, Norfolk, and occasionally in Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, and Huntingdonshire
1654 Cornelius Haga the first ambassador of the Dutch Republic to the Ottoman Empire.
1667 Cornelius van Poelenburgh a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
1674 Philippe de Champaigne a Brabançon-born French Baroque era painter, a major exponent of the French school. He was a founding member of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture
1676 Metacomet a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philip's War, a widespread uprising against English colonists in New England.
1679 Marie de Rohan a French aristocrat, famed for being the center of many of the intrigues of the first half of the 17th century in France. In various sources, she is often known simply as Madame de Chevreuse
1689 Pope Innocent XI Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death in 1689. He is known as the "Saviour of Hungary"
1722 Giovanni II Cornaro a Venetian nobleman and statesman; he served as the 111th Doge of Venice from 22 May 1709 until his death.
1725 Pierre de Montesquiou d'Artagnan a French soldier and Marshal of France.
1750 Rachel Ruysch a Dutch still life painter who specialized in flowers. She achieved international fame in her lifetime, and was the best documented woman painter of the Dutch Golden Age. Art historians assess Ruysch to be one of the most talented still life artists among both men and women. By her death at age 86 she had produced more than 250 paintings
1763 Olof von Dalin a Swedish nobleman, poet, historian and courtier. He was an influential literary figure of the Swedish Enlightenment
1778 Peregrine Bertie 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven the son of Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven.
1782 Stanisław Lubomirski (1722–1782) a Polish nobleman. He was awarded Knight of the Order of the White Eagle on August 3, 1757 in Warsaw
1794 Michał Jerzy Poniatowski a Polish nobleman, abbot of Tyniec and Czerwińsk, Bishop of Płock and Coadjutor Bishop of Kraków from 1773, and Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland from 1784. He was made a knight of the Order of the White Eagle on November 25, 1764. Nine days later, he was made a prince by his brother, the last king of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski
1799 Feliks Oraczewski a Polish writer, educational and political activist.
1803 Ignazio Busca an Italian cardinal and Secretary of State of the Holy See. He was the last son of Lodovico Busca, marquess of Lomagna and Bianca Arconati Visconti. he took a degree in utroque iure in 1759 at the Università La Sapienza of Rome. Relator of the Sacred Consulta and referendary of the tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, he was ordained priest on August 20, 1775. Elected titular archbishop of Emesa, he was consecrated on September 17, 1775 in Frascati, by Henry Benedict Stuart. He was apostolic nuncio in Flanders and apostolic vicar for Netherlands from 1776 to 1785 and later was governor of Rome from 1785 until 1789. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 30, 1789, he received the Galero and the title of Santa Maria della Pace on August 3, 1789. He was appointed Secretary of State by Pope Pius VI in 1796. He participated in the conclave of 1800
1809 Mikhail Kamensky a Russian Field Marshal prominent in the Catherinian wars and the Napoleonic campaigns.
1810 Étienne Louis Geoffroy a French entomologist and pharmacist. He was born in Paris and died in Soissons. He followed the binomial nomenclature of Carl von Linné and devoted himself mainly to beetles
1811 Sir John Acton 6th Baronet commander of the naval forces of Grand Duchy of Tuscany and prime minister of Naples under Ferdinand IV.
1812 Jean-Joseph Rodolphe an Alsatian horn player, violinist and composer.
1813 Samuel Osgood an American merchant and statesman born in North Andover, Massachusetts, parent town of the Andovers. His family home still stands at 440 Osgood Street in North Andover and his home in New York City, the Samuel Osgood House, served as the country's first Presidential mansion. He served in the Massachusetts and New York State legislatures, represented Massachusetts in the Continental Congress and was the first Postmaster General of the United States, serving during George Washington's first term
1816 Charles Hubert Millevoye a French poet several times honored by the Académie française. He was a transitional figure between the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries as revealed in his Romantic poems. His poem beginning "Dans les bois l'amoureux Myrtil" is also well known as set to music in Vieille Chanson by Georges Bizet, as well as Le Mancenillier, as referred to in Meyerbeer's L'Africaine and Louis Moreau Gottschalk's serenade for piano Le Mancenillier, 11
1816 Mary Katherine Goddard an early American publisher and the first American postmistress. She was the first to print the Declaration of Independence with the names of the signatories
1822 Robert Stewart Viscount Castlereagh an Anglo-Irish British statesman. As British Foreign Secretary, from 1812 he was central to the management of the coalition that defeated Napoleon and was the principal British diplomat at the Congress of Vienna. Castlereagh was also leader of the British House of Commons in the Liverpool government from 1812 until his suicide in August 1822. Early in his career, as Chief Secretary for Ireland, he was involved in putting down the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and was instrumental in securing the passage of the Irish Act of Union of 1800
1827 William Blake an English painter, poet and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. His prophetic poetry has been said to form "what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language". His visual artistry led one contemporary art critic to proclaim him "far and away the greatest artist Britain has ever produced". In 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. Although he lived in London his entire life , he produced a diverse and symbolically rich oeuvre, which embraced the imagination as "the body of God" or "human existence itself"
1848 George Stephenson an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830. Renowned as the "Father of Railways", the Victorians considered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, with self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praising his achievements. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8 1⁄2 inches , sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the standard gauge by name and by convention for most of the world's railways