August 12 events in history

1099 First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade
1121 Battle of Didgori: The Georgian army under King David IV wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi
1164 Battle of Harim: Nur ad-Din Zangi defeats the Crusader armies of the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch
1323 Signature of the Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia), that regulates the border between the two countries for the first time
1480 Battle of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam; they are later honored in the Church
1499 First engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets
1624 The president of Louis XIII of France's royal council is arrested, leaving Cardinal Richelieu in the role of the King's principal minister
1676 Praying Indian John Alderman shoots and kills Metacomet, the Wampanoag war chief, ending King Philip's War
1687 Battle of Mohács: Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottoman Empire
1765 Treaty of Allahabad was signed. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of Company rule in India
1793 The Rhône and Loire départments are created when the former département of Rhône-et-Loire is split into two
1806 Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires re-takes the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina after the first British invasion
1831 French intervention forces William I of the Netherlands to abandon his attempt to suppress the Belgian Revolution
1851 Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine
1877 Asaph Hall discovers the Mars moon Deimos
1883 The last quagga dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam, Netherlands
1898 An Armistice ends the Spanish–American War
1898 The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ʻIolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States
1914 World War I: The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit
1914 World War I: The Battle of Haelen a.k.a. (Battle of the Silver Helmets) a clash between large Belgian and German cavalry formations at Halen, Belgium
1944 Waffen-SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant'Anna di Stazzema
1944 Nazi German troops end the week-long Wola massacre, during which time at least 40,000 people were killed indiscriminately or in mass executions
1944 Alençon is liberated by General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces
1948 USS Nevada is struck from the naval record
1950 Korean War: Bloody Gulch massacre—American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army
1952 The Night of the Murdered Poets: Thirteen prominent Jewish intellectuals are murdered in Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union
1953 Nuclear weapons testing: The Soviet atomic bomb project continues with the detonation of Joe 4, the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon
1953 The islands of Zakynthos and Kefalonia in Greece are severely damaged by an earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale
1958 Art Kane photographs 57 notable jazz musicians in the black and white group portrait "A Great Day in Harlem" in front of a Brownstone in New York City
1960 Echo 1A, NASA's first successful communications satellite, is launched
1964 South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies
1964 Charlie Wilson, one of the Great Train Robbers, escapes from Winson Green Prison in Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
1969 Violence erupts after the Apprentice Boys of Derry march in Derry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom resulting in a three-day communal riot known as the Battle of the Bogside
1976 Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre, one of the bloodiest events of the Lebanese Civil War
1977 The first free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise
1977 The 1977 riots in Sri Lanka, targeting the minority Sri Lankan Tamil people, begin, less than a month after the United National Party came to power. Over 300 Tamils are killed
1978 The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People's Republic of China is signed
1980 The Montevideo Treaty, establishing the Latin American Integration Association, is signed
1981 The IBM Personal Computer is released
1982 Mexico announces that it is unable to pay its enormous external debt, marking the beginning of a debt crisis that spreads to all of Latin America and the Third World
1985 Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, killing 520, to become the worst single-plane air disaster
1990 Sue, the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton found to date, is discovered by Sue Hendrickson in South Dakota
1992 Canada, Mexico and the United States announce completion of negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
1993 Pope John Paul II starts his 8th annual World Youth Day in Denver's Mile High Stadium
1994 Major League Baseball players go on strike. This will force the cancellation of the 1994 World Series
2000 The Oscar class submarine K-141 Kursk of the Russian Navy explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise
2004 Mr. Lee Hsien Loong is sworn in as Singapore's third Prime Minister
2005 Sri Lanka's foreign minister, Lakshman Kadirgamar, is fatally shot by an LTTE sniper at his home
2007 The bulk carrier MV New Flame collides with the oil tanker Torm Gertrud at the southernmost tip of Gibraltar, ending up partially submerged