Born on August 14

1297 Emperor Hanazono the 95th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1308 through 1318
1337 Robert III of Scotland King of Scots from 1390 to his death. He was known primarily as the Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne at age 53. He was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimated with the marriage of his parents in 1347
1414 Jami commonly known as Jami , is known for his achievements as a scholar, mystic, writer, composer of numerous lyrics and idylls, historian, and the greatest Persian and Tajik Sufi poets of the 15th century. Jami was primarily an outstanding poet-theologian of the school of Ibn Arabi and a prominent Khwājagānī Sũfī. He was recognized for his eloquent tongue and ready at repartee who analyzed the idea of the metaphysics of mercy. Among his famous poetical works are: Haft Awrang, Tuhfat al-Ahrar, Layla wa -Majnun, Fatihat al-Shabab, Lawa'ih, Al-Durrah al-Fakhirah
1446 Andrey Bolshoy the third son of Vasili II of Russia who transformed his capital in Uglich into a major centre of political power and ensured the town's prosperity for two centuries to come.
1473 Margaret Pole Countess of Salisbury an English peeress. She was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, who was the brother of King Edward IV and King Richard III. She was one of two women in sixteenth-century England to be a peeress in her own right with no titled husband. One of the few surviving members of the Plantagenet dynasty after the Wars of the Roses, she was executed in 1541 at the command of King Henry VIII, who was the son of her cousin Elizabeth of York. Pope Leo XIII beatified her as a martyr for the Roman Catholic Church on 29 December 1886
1479 Catherine of York the ninth child and sixth daughter of King Edward IV by his wife Elizabeth Woodville. From birth to death, she was daughter to Edward IV, sister to Edward V, niece to Richard III, sister-in-law to Henry VII and aunt to Henry VIII
1502 Pieter Coecke van Aelst a Flemish painter appointed court painter to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1534.
1524 Elizabeth of Denmark Duchess of Mecklenburg Danish princess and a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and later of Mecklenburg-Güstrow through marriage. She was the elder daughter of King Frederick I of Denmark and his second spouse Sophie of Pomerania
1530 Giambattista Benedetti an Italian mathematician from Venice who was also interested in physics, mechanics, the construction of sundials, and the science of music.
1552 Paolo Sarpi a Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict and its war with Austria over the Uskok pirates. His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, "inspired both Hobbes and Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft." Sarpi's major work, the History of the Council of Trent , was published in London in 1619; other works: a History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, History of the Interdict and his Supplement to the History of the Uskoks, appeared posthumously. Organized around single topics, they are early examples of the genre of the historical monograph
1575 Robert Hayman a poet, colonist and Proprietary Governor of Bristol's Hope colony in Newfoundland.
1599 Méric Casaubon a French-English classical scholar. Although biographical dictionaries commonly accentuate his name to Méric, he himself did not do so
1625 François de Harlay de Champvallon the fifth archbishop of Paris.
1642 Cosimo III de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany the penultimate Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, and was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of ultra-reactionary laws which regulated prostitution and banned May celebrations. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. He was succeeded by his elder surviving son, Gian Gastone, when he died, in 1723
1653 Christopher Monck 2nd Duke of Albemarle an English soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1667 to 1670 when he inherited the Dukedom and sat in the House of Lords.
1688 Frederick William I of Prussia the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel
1692 Frederick Anton Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the ruling Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1718 until his death.
1701 Thomas Blackwell (scholar) a classical scholar, historian and "one of the major figures in the Scottish Enlightenment.".
1714 Claude Joseph Vernet a French painter. His son, Antoine Charles Horace Vernet, was also a painter
1720 Frederick II Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, and raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy
1727 Louise Élisabeth of France the eldest daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort, Maria Leszczyńska, and the elder twin sister of Anne Henriette de France. As the daughter of the king, she was a Daughter of France. She married Infante Philip, younger son of Philip V of Spain, and later became Duchess of Parma. In secondary sources she is referred also as "Louise Élisabeth of France"
1727 Princess Henriette of France the twin sister of Louise Élisabeth de France, the eldest child of King Louis XV of France and of his queen consort Marie Leszczyńska.
1733 Jean-François Ducis a French dramatist and adapter of Shakespeare.
1738 Leopold Hofmann an Austrian composer of classical music.
1742 Hugh Percy 2nd Duke of Northumberland an officer in the British army and later a British peer. He participated in the Battle of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Long Island during the American Revolutionary War, but resigned his command in 1777 due to disagreements with his superior, General Howe
1742 Pope Pius VII born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, reigned from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was also a monk, theologian, and bishop throughout his life. When he joined his religious order in 1756 he took the name of Gregorio
1748 Princess Caroline of Waldeck and Pyrmont a Duchess consort of Courland.
1758 Carle Vernet Antoine Charles Horace Vernet aka. Carle Vernet was a French painter, the youngest child of Claude Joseph Vernet, and the father of Horace Vernet
1768 Friedrich Dülon one of the most prominent and famous flute-virtuoso musicians of the classical era, being one of the first flutists to be considered gifted on flute. At the age of 40 he had acquired more than 300 concerts in his repertoire. Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart devoted a 9-verse poem entitled The blind flute player Dülon on the journey.d
1772 Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria Palatine of Hungary, appointed during the reign of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, and serving into the reign of his elder brother, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II.
1774 Ram Mohan Roy Template:Article issues=November 2014.
1776 Christian Friedrich Tieck a German sculptor and a brother of Ludwig and Sophie Tieck.
1777 Hans Christian Ørsted a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, an important aspect of electromagnetism. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century
1792 John Jeremiah Bigsby an English physician who became known for his work on geology, an interest developed while on military service in Lower and Upper Canada, 1818-1826. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society. Before moving to London, he was Alderman and Mayor of Newark-upon-Trent, 1827-1830. In 1850, he published a lively book recounting his life and travels in British North America, The Shoe and Canoe. In 1868, he published his most important scientific work, Thesaurus Siluricus, being a list of all the fossils which occur in the Silurian formation across the world. He contributed about twenty seven papers to various scientific societies in London. He published Thesaurus Devonico-Carboniferus but died shortly before completing Thesaurus Permianus. In 1874, he was awarded the Murchison Medal. In 1876, he endowed the Bigsby Medal
1814 Adolph Tidemand a noted Norwegian romantic nationalism painter. Among his best known paintings are Haugianerne and Brudeferd i Hardanger , painted in collaboration with Hans Gude
1815 Charles Victor Naudin a French naturalist and botanist.
1817 Alexander H. Bailey an American politician, a United States Representative and judge from New York.
1818 François d'Orléans Prince of Joinville the third son of Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, afterwards king of the French and his wife Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. He was an admiral of the French Navy
1819 Agenor duc de Gramont a French diplomat and statesman.
1822 James Strong (theologian) an American Methodist biblical scholar and educator, and the creator of Strong's Concordance.
1823 Karel Miry a Belgian composer.
1826 Hermann Brehmer a German physician who established the first German sanatorium for the systematic open-air treatment of tuberculosis.
1834 Friedrich Goltz a German physiologist and nephew of the writer Bogumil Goltz.
1834 Alexander Winterberger a German organist and composer. He is mostly remembered for his association with Franz Liszt, in particular his close involvement with the two great organ fantasies Liszt wrote for the Merseburg Cathedral organ, the Fantasy and Fugue on the chorale "Ad nos ad salutarem undam" and the Fantasy and Fugue on the Theme B-A-C-H
1840 Briton Rivière a British artist of Huguenot descent. He exhibited a variety of paintings at the Royal Academy, but devoted much of his life to animal paintings
1840 Richard von Krafft-Ebing an Austro–German psychiatrist and author of the foundational work Psychopathia Sexualis.
1841 Joseph Friedrich Hummel an Austrian choral conductor, composer and music teacher. Father of musicologist Walter Hummel, he was a musician and promoter of the works of Wagner, Bruckner and Strauss, a representant of the more creative sounding musical culture of his time. The Josef-Friedrich-Hummel-Straße, a street in Salzburg located in close proximity to the main building of the Mozarteum, was named after him
1842 Jean Gaston Darboux a French mathematician.
1847 Robert Comtesse a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council.
1851 Yannoulis Chalepas a Greek sculptor and significant figure of Modern Greek art.