August 15 events in history

636 Arab–Byzantine wars: The Battle of Yarmouk between Byzantine Empire and Rashidun Caliphate begins
717 Arab–Byzantine wars: Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik begins the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople, which will last for nearly a year
718 Arab–Byzantine wars: Raising of the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople
747 Carloman, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, renounces his position as majordomo and retires to a monastery near Rome. His brother Pepin the Short becomes the sole ruler (de facto) of the Frankish Kingdom
778 The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed
927 The Saracens conquer and destroy Taranto
982 Holy Roman Emperor Otto II is defeated by the Saracens in the Battle of Capo Colonna, in Calabria
1018 Byzantine general Eustathios Daphnomeles blinds and captures Ibatzes of Bulgaria by a ruse, thereby ending Bulgarian resistance against Emperor Basil II's conquest of Bulgaria
1040 King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. The latter succeeds him as King of Scotland
1057 King Macbeth is killed at the Battle of Lumphanan by the forces of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada
1070 The Pavian-born Benedictine Lanfranc is appointed as the new Archbishop of Canterbury in England
1185 The cave city of Vardzia is consecrated by Queen Tamar of Georgia
1237 The Battle of the Puig takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Taifa of Valencia against the Kingdom of Aragon. The battle resulted in an Aragonese victory
1248 The foundation stone of Cologne Cathedral, built to house the relics of the Three Wise Men, is laid. (Construction is eventually completed in 1880.)
1261 Michael VIII Palaiologos is crowned Byzantine emperor in Constantinople
1281 Mongol invasion of Japan: The Mongolian fleet of Kublai Khan is destroyed by a "divine wind" for the second time in the Battle of Kōan
1309 The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights establish their headquarters on the island and rename themselves the Knights of Rhodes
1430 Francesco Sforza, lord of Milan, conquers Lucca
1461 The Empire of Trebizond surrenders to the forces of Sultan Mehmed II. This is regarded by some historians as the real end of the Byzantine Empire. Emperor David is exiled and later murdered
1483 Pope Sixtus IV consecrates the Sistine Chapel
1511 Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Malacca Sultanate
1517 Seven Portuguese armed vessels led by Fernão Pires de Andrade meet Chinese officials at the Pearl River estuary
1519 Panama City, Panama, is founded
1534 Ignatius of Loyola and six classmates take initial vows, leading to the creation of the Society of Jesus in September 1540
1540 Arequipa, Peru, is founded
1549 Jesuit priest Francis Xavier comes ashore at Kagoshima (Traditional Japanese date: July 22, 1549)
1599 Nine Years' War: Battle of Curlew Pass – Irish forces led by Hugh Roe O'Donnell successfully ambush English forces, led by Sir Conyers Clifford, sent to relieve Collooney Castle
1695 French forces end the bombardment of Brussels, leaving a third of the buildings in the city in ruins
1760 Seven Years' War: Battle of Liegnitz – Frederick the Great's victory over the Austrians under Ernst Gideon von Laudon
1812 War of 1812: The Battle of Fort Dearborn is fought between United States troops and Potawatomi at what is now Chicago, Illinois
1824 The Marquis de Lafayette, the last surviving French general of the American Revolutionary War, arrives in New York and begins a tour of 24 states
1843 The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, Hawaii is dedicated. Now the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, it is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States
1843 Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark
1863 The Anglo-Satsuma War begins between the Satsuma Domain of Japan and the United Kingdom (Traditional Japanese date: July 2, 1863)
1869 The Meiji government in Japan establishes six new ministries, including one for Shinto
1893 Ibadan area becomes a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos, George C. Denton
1907 Ordination in Constantinople of Fr. Raphael Morgan, the first African-American Orthodox priest, "Priest-Apostolic" to America and the West Indies
1914 A male servant of American architect Frank Lloyd Wright sets fire to the living quarters of the latter's Wisconsin home, Taliesin, murders seven people and burns the living quarters to the ground
1914 The Panama Canal opens to traffic with the transit of the cargo ship SS Ancon
1914 World War I: The First Russian Army, led by Paul von Rennenkampf, enters East Prussia
1914 World War I: Beginning of the Battle of Cer, the first Allied victory of World War I
1915 A story in New York World newspaper reveals that the Imperial German government had purchased excess phenol from Thomas Edison that could be used to make explosives for the war effort and diverted it to Bayer for aspirin production
1920 Polish–Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw, so-called Miracle at the Vistula
1935 Will Rogers and Wiley Post are killed after their aircraft develops engine problems during takeoff in Barrow, Alaska
1939 Thirteen Stukas dive into the ground during a disastrous air-practice at Neuhammer. There are no survivors
1939 The Wizard of Oz premieres at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Los Angeles, California
1940 An Italian submarine torpedoes and sinks the Greek cruiser Elli at Tinos harbor during peacetime, marking the most serious Italian provocation prior to the outbreak of the Greco-Italian War in October
1941 Corporal Josef Jakobs is executed by firing squad at the Tower of London at 07:12, making him the last person to be executed at the Tower for espionage
1942 World War II: Operation Pedestal: The SS Ohio reaches the island of Malta barely afloat carrying vital fuel supplies for the island's defenses
1944 World War II: Operation Dragoon: Allied forces land in southern France