Died on August 17

754 Carloman (mayor of the palace) the eldest son of Charles Martel, majordomo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud of Treves. On Charles's death , Carloman and his brother Pepin the Short succeeded to their father's legal positions, Carloman in Austrasia, and Pepin in Neustria. He was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks. He withdrew from public life in 747 to take up the monastic habit, "the first of a new type of saintly king," according to Norman Cantor, "more interested in religious devotion than royal power, who frequently appeared in the following three centuries and who was an indication of the growing impact of Christian piety on Germanic society"
1153 Eustace IV Count of Boulogne the eldest son of King Stephen of England and Countess Matilda I of Boulogne. When his father seized the English throne on Henry I's death in 1135, he became heir apparent to the English throne
1304 Emperor Go-Fukakusa the 89th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1246 through 1260
1338 Nitta Yoshisada the head of the Nitta family in the early fourteenth century, and supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo in the Nanboku-chō period, capturing Kamakura from the Hōjō clan in 1333.
1424 John VIII Count of Harcourt a count of Aumale. He was the son of John VII of Harcourt, count of Harcourt, and of Marie of Alençon, a "princess of the blood"
1424 John Stewart Earl of Buchan a Scottish nobleman and soldier who fought alongside Scotland's French allies during the Hundred Years War. In 1419 he was sent to France by his father the Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland, with an army of 6,000 men. Stewart led the combined Franco-Scottish army at the Battle of Baugé on 21 March 1421, where he comprehensively defeated the English forces, proving that the English could at last be beaten. However, two years later, Stewart was defeated and captured by Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury at the Battle of Cravant in 1423. After the battle he was exchanged, and after his release in 1424 he was appointed Constable of France making him the effective Commander-in-Chief of the French army. On 17 August 1424 Buchan was killed at the disastrous Battle of Verneuil, along with most of the Scottish troops in France
1433 Jan of Tarnów (1367–1433) a Polish nobleman.
1510 Edmund Dudley an English administrator and a financial agent of King Henry VII. He served as Speaker of the House of Commons and President of the King's Council. After the accession of Henry VIII, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed the next year on a treason charge. While waiting for his execution he wrote The Tree of Commonwealth
1553 Charles III Duke of Savoy Duke of Savoy from 1504 to 1553, although most of his lands were ruled by the French between 1536 and his death.
1556 Victoria of Valois and her twin sister Joan were the last children born to King Henry II of France and his wife, Catherine de' Medici.
1559 Lorenzo Priuli the 82nd Doge of Venice. He reigned from 1556 to 1559. His dogaressa was Zilia Dandolo
1571 Marco Antonio Bragadin a Venetian lawyer and military officer of the Republic of Venice.
1581 Duchess Sabine of Württemberg a princess of Württemberg by birth and by marriage, the first Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel.
1637 Johann Gerhard a Lutheran church leader and Lutheran Scholastic theologian during the period of Orthodoxy.
1642 Friedrich Kettler Duke of Courland from 1587 to 1642.
1673 Regnier de Graaf a Dutch physician and anatomist who made key discoveries in reproductive biology. His first name is often spelled Reinier or Reynier
1676 Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen a German author.
1681 Patriarch Nikon of Moscow the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' of the Russian Orthodox Church. This was one of the most important periods in the Church's history, as Nikon introduced many reforms which eventually led to a lasting schism known as Raskol in the Russian Orthodox Church
1720 Anne Dacier a French scholar and translator of the classics.
1723 Joseph Bingham an English scholar and divine, was born at Wakefield in Yorkshire.
1738 Francesco Barberini (1662–1738) an Italian Cardinal of the family of Pope Urban VIII and of the Princes of Palestrina.
1758 Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin a relative of Fyodor Apraksin, commanded the Russian armies during the Seven Years' War. He should not be confused with his son Stepan Stepanovich Apraksin, who had a notable military career in the service of Catherine the Great
1768 Vasily Trediakovsky a Russian poet, essayist and playwright who helped lay the foundations of classical Russian literature.
1785 Jonathan Trumbull one of the few Americans who served as governor in both a pre-Revolutionary colony and a post-Revolutionary state. He was the only colonial governor at the start of the Revolution to take up the rebel cause
1786 Frederick the Great II reigned over the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786. The third Hohenzollern king, Frederick is best known for his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the Arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people
1794 Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach the eldest granddaughter of the Elector of the Palatinate Charles III Philip, and by her marriage to Elector Palatine Charles IV Theodore, Electress Palatine and later Electress of Bavaria.
1807 Johannes Nikolaus Tetens a German-Danish philosopher, statistician and scientist.
1809 Matthew Boulton an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt. In the final quarter of the 18th century, the partnership installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines, which were a great advance on the state of the art, making possible the mechanisation of factories and mills. Boulton applied modern techniques to the minting of coins, striking millions of pieces for Britain and other countries, and supplying the Royal Mint with up-to-date equipment
1812 Michal Grabowski a brigadier general of the Army of Duchy of Warsaw.
1823 Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen the elder daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, and wife of Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel.
1832 Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon during the first Empire and Restoration, eventually rising to the rank of brigadier general. He participated in the Battle of Wagram, in the course of which he lost a leg, which was replaced by a wooden prosthesis; hence his nickname jambe de bois , and was assigned to the defense of the Château de Vincennes in 1812. Vincennes was then an arsenal containing 52 000 new rifles, more than 100 field guns and many tons of powder, bullets, canonballs... A tempting prize for the Sixth Coalition marching on Paris in 1814 in the aftermath of the Battle of the Nations. However Daumesnil faced down the allies and replied with the famous words "I shall surrender Vincennes when I get my leg back". With only 300 men under his command, he resisted to the Coalition until king Louis XVIII of France ordered to leave the fortress
1834 Husein Gradaščević a Bosniak general who fought against the Ottoman Empire and new reforms implemented by the Sultan Mahmud II which abolished the ayan system. He is often referred to as "Zmaj od Bosne", meaning "the Dragon of Bosnia". Gradaščević was born in Gradačac in 1802—hence his surname Gradaščević, meaning "of Gradačac"—and grew up surrounded by a political climate of turmoil in the western reaches of the Ottoman Empire. The young Husein developed a reputation for wise rule and tolerance and soon became one of the most popular figures in Bosnia
1836 Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel a cadet member of the house of Hesse-Kassel and a Danish general field marshal. Brought up with relatives at the Danish court, he spent most of his life in Denmark, serving as royal governor of the twin duchies of Schleswig-Holstein from 1769 to 1836
1838 José Miguel Pey de Andrade a Colombian statesman and soldier and a leader of the independence movement from Spain. He is considered the first vice president and first president of Colombia. He was a centralist
1838 Lorenzo Da Ponte a Venetian opera librettist and poet. He wrote the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including three of Mozart's greatest operas, Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro and Così fan tutte
1845 Hieronymus Payer an Austrian composer and pianist.
1850 José de San Martín an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain
1852 Sveinbjörn Egilsson an Icelandic theologian, classicist, teacher, translator and poet. He is best known for the work he did during his time as the rector of The Learned School of Reykjavík , particularly his translations of Homer's Odyssey and Iliad into Icelandic
1861 Alcée Louis la Branche a member of the S. House of Representatives from the state of Louisiana. He served one term as a Democrat
1865 Charles Cavendish-Bentinck (priest) a great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. His significance lies in his position as a royal ancestor, and in his own connections by birth to three powerful British ducal families
1868 Duncan Forbes (linguist) a Scottish linguist.
1870 Perucho Figueredo a Cuban poet, musician, and freedom fighter of the 19th century. In the 1860s, he was active in the planning of the Cuban uprising against the Spanish known as the Ten Years' War
1873 William M. Meredith an American lawyer and politician. He was to served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury, during the President Zachary Taylor's Cabinet
1875 Wilhelm Bleek a German linguist. His work included A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages and his great project jointly executed with Lucy Lloyd: The Bleek and Lloyd Archive of ǀxam and !kun texts
1880 Ole Bull a Norwegian violinist and composer.
1886 Alexander Butlerov a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure , the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine , and the discoverer of the formose reaction.
1893 Constantin von Wurzbach an Austrian biographer.
1896 Bridget Driscoll the first pedestrian victim of an automobile collision in the United Kingdom. As she and her teenage daughter May and her friend Elizabeth Murphy crossed Dolphin Terrace in the grounds of the Crystal Palace in London, Driscoll was struck by an automobile belonging to the Anglo-French Motor Carriage Company that was being used to give demonstration rides. One witness described the car as travelling at "a reckless pace, in fact, like a fire engine"
1897 William Jervois a British military engineer and diplomat. After joining the British Army in 1839, he saw service, as a second captain, in South Africa. In 1858, as a major, he was appointed Secretary of a Royal Commission set up to examine the state and efficiency of British land-based fortifications against naval attack; and this led to further work in Canada and South Australia. From 1875 to 1888 he was, consecutively, Governor of the Straits Settlements, Governor of South Australia and Governor-General of New Zealand
1898 Carl Zeller an Austrian composer of operettas.