Born on August 18

1305 Ashikaga Takauji the founder and first shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. His rule began in 1338, beginning the Muromachi period of Japan, and ended with his death in 1358. He was a descendant of the samurai of the Seiwa Genji line who had settled in the Ashikaga area of Shimotsuke Province, in present day Tochigi Prefecture
1450 Marko Marulić a Croatian national poet and Christian humanist, known as the Crown of the Croatian Medieval Age and the father of the Croatian Renaissance. He signed his works as Marko Marulić Splićanin , Marko Pečenić, Marcus Marulus Spalatensis, or Dalmata. He was also the first who defined and used the notion of psychology, which is today in current use
1497 Francesco Canova da Milano an Italian lutenist and composer. He was born in Monza, near Milan, and worked for the papal court for almost all of his career. Francesco was heralded throughout Europe as the foremost lute composer of his time. More of his music is preserved than of any other lutenist of the period, and his work continued to influence composers for more than a century after his death
1526 Claude Duke of Aumale the third son of Claude, Duke of Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon. He was a prince of Lorraine by birth
1564 Federico Borromeo an Italian cardinal and archbishop of Milan.
1579 Countess Charlotte Flandrina of Nassau the fourth daughter of William the Silent and his third spouse Charlotte of Bourbon.
1587 Virginia Dare the first child born in the New World to English parents, Eleanor and Ananias Dare. She was named after the Virginia Colony, due to being the first Christian born there
1596 Jean Bolland a Jesuit priest and prominent Flemish hagiographer.
1605 Henry Hammond an English churchman.
1606 Maria Anna of Spain Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
1611 Marie Louise Gonzaga wife of two Polish kings, Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir Vasa, and as such queen of Poland. She was born in Paris to Charles I, Duke of Mantua, and Catherine of Guise
1657 Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena an Italian Baroque-era architect, designer, and painter.
1683 Christian Ernest II Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
1685 Brook Taylor best known for Taylor's theorem and the Taylor series.
1692 Louis Henri Duke of Bourbon head of the Bourbon-Condé cadet branch of the France's reigning House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, and served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726.
1700 Baji Rao I a noted general who served as Peshwa to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati Chhatrapati Shahu Raje Bhonsle from 1720 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorale Baji Rao. He was also popular with the nickname 'Rau'
1720 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers the last member of the House of Lords hanged in England, following his conviction for murdering his steward.
1748 Pierre Sonnerat a French naturalist and explorer.
1750 Antonio Salieri an Italian classical composer, conductor and teacher born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, but who spent his adult life and career as a subject of the Habsburg Monarchy.
1754 François marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat born at Saint-Sernin , of a noble family, and entered the French engineers in 1774.
1759 Jean Ambroise Baston de Lariboisière a general of artillery of the First French Empire. He fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars and died of fatigue at Königsberg in East Prussia on 21 December 1812, during the Grand Army's retreat from Moscow
1761 Pierre Claude François Daunou a French statesman and historian of the French Revolution and Empire.
1765 Louis Aloysius Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein a German prince and Marshal of France.
1771 Louis-François Bertin de Vaux a French journalist.
1774 Meriwether Lewis an American explorer, soldier, and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark. Their mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, establish trade and sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, and claim the Pacific Northwest and Oregon Country for the United States before European nations. They also collected scientific data, and information on indigenous nations. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Governor of Upper Louisiana in 1806. He died of gunshot wounds in what was either a murder or suicide, in 1809
1776 Agustín Argüelles a Spanish liberal politician.
1782 Jean Baptiste Antoine Marcellin de Marbot born at La Riviere.
1785 Friedrich Wieck a noted German piano teacher, voice teacher, owner of a piano store, and music reviewer. He is remembered as the teacher of his daughter, Clara, a child prodigy who was undertaking international concert tours by age eleven and who later married her father's pupil Robert Schumann, in defiance of her father's extreme objections. As Clara Schumann, she became one of the most famous pianists of her time. Another of Wieck's daughters, Marie Wieck, also had a career in music, although not nearly so illustrious as Clara's. Other pupils included Hans von Bülow
1792 John Russell 1st Earl Russell a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister on two occasions during the mid-19th century. Scion of one of the most powerful aristocratic families, his great achievements, says J. Taylor, were based on his indefatigable battles in Parliament over the years on behalf of the expansion of liberty; after each loss he tried again and again, until finally his efforts were largely successful. Woodward, however, argued that he was too much the abstract theorist, so that "He was more concerned with the removal of obstacles to civil liberty than with the creation of a more reasonable and civilized society. Nevertheless Russell led his Whig Party into support for reform; he was the principal architect of the great Reform Act of 1832. As Prime Minister his luck ran out. He took much of the blame for the government's failures in dealing with the Irish famine. Taylor concludes that as prime minister, he:
1793 Auguste of Anhalt-Dessau the eldest child of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and his wife, Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Homburg.
1803 Nathan Clifford an American statesman, diplomat and jurist, whose career culminated in a lengthy period of service as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
1807 Charles Francis Adams Sr. an American historical editor, politician and diplomat. He was the son of President John Quincy Adams and grandson of President John Adams, of whom he wrote a major biography
1810 Jules Perrot a dancer and choreographer who later became Balletmaster of the Imperial Ballet in Petersburg, Russia. He created some of the most famous ballets of the 19th century including Pas de Quatre, La Esmeralda, Ondine, and Giselle with Jean Coralli
1811 Friedrich Lübker a German educator and philologist.
1815 Alexander von Middendorff a Baltic German zoologist and explorer.
1815 Matthias Durst an Austrian violinist, violist and composer.
1815 Otto Karl Berg a German botanist and pharmacist. The official abbreviation of his name, in botany, is Berg
1818 Hans Hermann Behr a German-American doctor, an entomologist and a botanist.
1819 Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (1819–1876) a daughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, sister of Alexander II and aunt of Alexander III. In 1839 she married Maximilian, Duke of Leuchtenberg. She was an art collector and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg
1822 Isaac P. Rodman a Rhode Island banker and politician, and a Union Army brigadier general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Antietam.
1824 Pierre-Émile Martin a French industrial engineer.
1826 Irakli Gruzinsky a Georgian prince of the House of Bagrationi and a colonel in the Russian Imperial army. He was a grandson of Heraclius II, the penultimate king of Georgia, and the son of Prince Alexander, a staunch opponent of the Russian possession of Georgia
1830 Franz Joseph I of Austria Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary from 1848 until his death in 1916. From 1 May 1850 until 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation
1831 Ernest Noel member of Parliament for the Scottish seat of Dumfries Burghs from 1874 to 1886. He was chairman of the Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company from 1880, during the construction of a new suburb for the working classes in Wood Green which was named "Noel Park" in his honour
1831 Princess Helena of Nassau daughter of William, Duke of Nassau , and consort of George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont.
1834 Marshall Field an American entrepreneur and the founder of Marshall Field and Company, the Chicago-based department stores. His business was renowned for its then-exceptional level of quality and customer service. Field is also known for some of his philanthropic donations, providing funding for the Field Museum of Natural History and donating land for the campus of the University of Chicago
1835 Amalia Freud the second wife of Jacob Freud and mother of Sigmund Freud. She was born Amalia Nathansohn in Brody, Galicia, now in Ukraine, and grew up in Odessa
1836 Oleksandr Konysky a Ukrainian interpreter, writer, lexicographer, pedagogue, poet, and civil activist of liberal direction. He had several pen names О. Return-freedom , Gorovenko, Burkun, Perebendia, О. Khutorianyn, and others. He also was a professional lawyer and also is known as the author of the text of the Ukrainian spiritual anthem "Prayer for Ukraine"
1841 Robert Williams Buchanan a Scottish poet, novelist and dramatist.
1841 William Halford a sailor, and later an officer, in the United States Navy. He also received the Medal of Honor