Died on August 18

353 Decentius a usurper of the Western Roman Empire against emperor Constantius American scholar Michael DiMaio speculates that Decentius possibly was the brother of Magnentius, who had revolted against Constantius on 18 January 350.
440 Pope Sixtus III Pope from 31 July 432 to his death in 440.
472 Ricimer a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 456 until his death in 472. Deriving his power from his position as magister militum of the Western Empire, Ricimer exercised political control through a series of puppet emperors
673 Kim Yushin a general in 7th-century Silla. He led the unification of the Korean peninsula by Silla under the reign of King Muyeol of Silla and King Munmu of Silla. He is said to have been the great-grandchild of King Guhae of Geumgwan Gaya, the last ruler of the Geumgwan Gaya state. This would have given him a very high position in the Silla bone rank system, which governed the political and military status that a person could attain
849 Walafrid Strabo a Frankish monk and theological writer.
1095 Olaf I of Denmark king of Denmark from 1086 to 1095, following the death of his brother Canute IV the Holy. He was a son of king Sweyn II Estridsson, and the third of Sweyn's sons to rule. He married Ingegard, the daughter of Harald Hardråde, but did not have any children. He was succeeded by his brother Eric I Evergood
1227 Genghis Khan the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise.
1258 Theodore II Laskaris Emperor of Nicaea from 1254 to 1258.
1276 Pope Adrian V Pope from 11 July to his death on August 18th 1276.
1308 Clare of Montefalco an Augustinian nun and abbess. Before becoming a nun, Clare was a member of the Third Order of Francis. She was canonized by Pope Leo XIII on December 8, 1881
1430 Thomas de Ros 8th Baron de Ros an English peer.
1500 Alfonso of Aragon the illegitimate son of Alfonso II King of Naples and his mistress Trogia Gazzela. His father, cousin of Ferdinand II King of Aragon, abdicated in favour of his legitimate son Ferdinand II of Naples
1503 Pope Alexander VI Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, because he broke the priestly vow of celibacy and had several legitimately acknowledged children. Therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. Two of Alexander's successors, Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since Peter
1541 Henry IV Duke of Saxony a Duke of Saxony from the House of Wettin.
1559 Pope Paul IV C.R. né Gian Pietro Carafa, was Pope from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559. While serving as papal nuncio in Spain, he developed an anti-Spanish outlook that later coloured his papacy, and resulted in the Papal States suffering a serious military defeat in the Italian War of 1551–59
1563 Étienne de La Boétie a French judge, writer, and "a founder of modern political philosophy in France." He "has been best remembered as the great and close friend of the eminent essayist Michel de Montaigne, in one of history's most notable friendships.".
1613 Giovanni Artusi an Italian theorist, composer, and writer.
1620 Wanli Emperor the thirteenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China. His era name means "Ten thousand calendars". Born Zhu Yijun, he was the Longqing Emperor's third son. His rule of forty-eight years was the longest in the Ming dynasty and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty
1634 Urbain Grandier a French Catholic priest who was burned at the stake after being convicted of witchcraft, following the events of the so-called "Loudun Possessions". The circumstances of Father Grandier's trial and execution have attracted the attention of writers Alexandre Dumas, père, Aldous Huxley and the playwright John Whiting, composers like Krzysztof Penderecki and Peter Maxwell Davies, as well as historian Jules Michelet and various scholars of European witchcraft. Most modern commentators have concluded that Grandier was the victim of a politically motivated persecution led by the powerful Cardinal Richelieu
1642 Guido Reni an Italian painter of high-Baroque style.
1645 Eudoxia Streshneva the second wife of Tsar Mikhail. She was a daughter of a nobleman Lukyan Stepanovich Streshnyov from Mozhaysk, who died in 1630, and his wife Anna Konstantinovna Volkonskaya
1648 Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648. He was born in Istanbul the son of Ahmed I by Valide Kösem Sultan, an ethnic Greek originally named Anastasia. He was later called Ibrahim the Mad by twentieth century historians due to his reputed mental condition
1652 Florimond de Beaune a French jurist and mathematician, and an early follower of René Descartes. Taton calls him "a typical example of the erudite amateurs" active in 17th-century science
1669 Maria Miloslavskaya the first wife of tsar Alexis of Russia and mother of the tsars Feodor III of Russia and Ivan V of Russia, as well as regent princess Sophia Alekseyevna.
1676 Jacopo Melani an Italian composer and violinist of the Baroque era. He was born and died in Pistoia, and was the brother of composer Alessandro Melani and singer Atto Melani
1683 Charles Hart (17th-century actor) a prominent British Restoration actor.
1707 William Cavendish 1st Duke of Devonshire an English soldier and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1684 when he inherited his father's peerage as Earl of Devonshire. He was created Duke of Devonshire in 1694
1712 Richard Savage 4th Earl Rivers the second son of Thomas, 3rd Earl; and after the death about 1680 of his elder brother Thomas, styled Viscount Colchester, he was designated by that title until he succeeded to the peerage.
1719 Heinrich von Cocceji a German jurist from Bremen. He studied in Leiden and Oxford and was appointed professor of law at Heidelberg and in Utrecht. Named Geheimrat and marquis, he became ordinary professor in the faculty of law at Frankfurt , where he later died
1751 Samuel von Schmettau a Prussian field marshal.
1759 Pyotr Saltykov a Russian statesman and a military figure, russian general-fieldmarshal , son of Semyon Saltykov.
1765 Jean-Joseph Balechou a French engraver.
1765 Francis I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. Francis and House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine , until succession under derivate house alliances resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766
1781 Franz Joseph I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1772 until his death.
1782 Princess Caroline of Waldeck and Pyrmont a Duchess consort of Courland.
1800 Jeongjo of Joseon the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He made various attempts to reform and improve the nation of Joseon. He was preceded by his grandfather King Yeongjo and succeeded by his son King Sunjo
1800 Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle an 18th-century French botanist and magistrate. Born into an affluent upper-class Parisian family, connections with the French Royal Court secured him the position of Superindent of Parisian Waters and Forests at the age of twenty-six. In this capacity, L'Héritier conducted various studies of native trees and shrubs, also gaining interest in exotic flora
1810 Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu a French explorer, hydrographer and politician. He was Minister of the Navy under Louis XVI, and a member of the Institut de France, as well as the brother of the botanist Marc Antoine Louis Claret de la Tourette
1815 Chauncey Goodrich an American lawyer and politician from Connecticut who represented that state in the United States Congress as both a senator and a representative.
1823 André-Jacques Garnerin a balloonist and the inventor of the frameless parachute. He was appointed Official Aeronaut of France
1825 Paul Louis Courier born in Paris.
1835 Friedrich Stromeyer a German chemist. Stromeyer received an MD degree from the University of Göttingen in 1800, studying under Johann Friedrich Gmelin and Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. He was then a professor at the university, and also served as an inspector of apothecaries
1837 Xavier Sigalon a French painter. He was one of the few leaders of the romantic movement who cared more for treatment of form than of colour
1841 Louis de Freycinet a French navigator. He circumnavigated the earth, and in 1811 published the first map to show a full outline of the coastline of Australia
1842 João Domingos Bomtempo a Portuguese classical pianist, composer and pedagogue.
1850 Honoré de Balzac a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon Bonaparte
1851 John FitzGibbon 2nd Earl of Clare the son of John FitzGibbon, 1st Earl of Clare and his wife, Anne. He succeeded to the titles of Baron FitzGibbon in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Clare in the Irish Peerage in 1802
1860 Johann Gottfried Ludwig Kosegarten a German orientalist born in Altenkirchen on the island of Rügen. He was the son of ecclesiastic Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten
1861 Jonker Afrikaner the fourth Captain of the Orlam Afrikaners in South West Africa, succeeding his father, Jager Afrikaner, in 1823. Soon after becoming Captein, he left his father’s settlement at Blydeverwacht with three brothers and some 300 followers and relocated to the area that is today central Namibia. From 1825 onwards he and his council played a dominant political role in Damaraland and Namaland, creating a de facto state
1862 Simon Fraser (explorer) now the Canadian province of British Columbia. Fraser was employed by the Montreal-based North West Company. By 1805, he had been put in charge of all the company's operations west of the Rocky Mountains. He was responsible for building that area's first trading posts, and, in 1808, he explored what is now known as the Fraser River, which bears his name. Simon Fraser's exploratory efforts were partly responsible for Canada's boundary later being established at the 49th parallel , since he as a British subject was the first European to establish permanent settlements in the area. According to historian Alexander Begg, Fraser "was offered a knighthood but declined the title due to his limited wealth"