Died on August 19

911 Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya a religious and political leader on the Arabian Peninsula. He was the first Zaydiyya imam who ruled over portions of Yemen, in 897-911, and is the ancestor of the Rassid Dynasty which held intermittent power in Yemen until 1962. The Hadawiyya school of Islamic law, the only authoritarian one for the Zaydiyya, stems from him
947 Abu Yazid a Kharijite Berber of the Banu Ifran tribe who led a rebellion against the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya starting in 944. Abū Yazīd conquered Kairouan for a time, but was eventually driven back and defeated by the Fatimid Caliph al-Mansur
1072 Hawise Duchess of Brittany hereditary Duchess of Brittany from 1066 until her death.
1139 Godfrey I Count of Namur a Lotharingian nobleman. He was Count jure uxoris of Porcéan from 1097 until his death. From 1102, he was also Count of Namur. He was the oldest son of Count Albert III and his wife Isa of Saxony, the heiress of Laroche
1167 Werner II Count of Habsburg Count of Habsburg and a progenitor of the royal House of Habsburg. He was the great-great-grandfather of King Rudolph I of Germany
1186 Geoffrey II Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. Geoffrey was the fourth son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine
1245 Ramon Berenguer IV Count of Provence the son of Alfonso II of Provence and Garsenda de Sabran, heiress of Forcalquier.
1284 Alphonso Earl of Chester the ninth child of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. During his lifetime, he was first in line to his father's throne of England and to his mother's county of Ponthieu in France
1297 Louis of Toulouse a cadet of the royal French house of Anjou who was made a Catholic bishop.
1405 Jan III of Oświęcim a Duke of Oświęcim since 1376 until his death.
1432 Giovanni Caracciolo an Italian nobleman of the Kingdom of Naples, prime minister and favorite of queen Joan II of Naples.
1457 Andrea del Castagno an Italian painter from Florence, influenced chiefly by Tommaso Masaccio and Giotto di Bondone. His works include frescoes in Sant'Apollonia in Florence and the painted equestrian monument of Niccolò da Tolentino in the Cathedral in Florence. He in turn influenced the Ferrarese school of Cosmè Tura, Francesco del Cossa and Ercole de' Roberti
1475 Gerhard VII Duke of Jülich-Berg the son of William VIII of Jülich, Count of Ravensberg and Adelheid of Tecklenburg. Gerhard was the second duke of the combined Duchy of Jülich-Berg but the 7th Gerhard in the House of Jülich
1493 Frederick III Holy Roman Emperor the Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was hereditary Duke of Austria from 1424 and elected King of Germany from 1440. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg. In 1493, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I after ten years of joint rule
1506 Alexander Jagiellon the Grand Duke of Lithuania and later also King of Poland. He was the fourth son of Casimir IV Jagiellon. He was elected Grand Duke of Lithuania on the death of his father , and King of Poland on the death of his brother John I Albert
1580 Andrea Palladio an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual in the history of Western architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition. The city of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto are UNESCO World Heritage Sites
1625 Frederick William Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn since 1617 until his death.
1632 Valentin de Boulogne a French painter in the tenebrist style.
1646 Alexander Henderson (theologian) a Scottish theologian, and an important ecclesiastical statesman of his period. He is considered the second founder of the Reformed Church in Scotland, and its Presbyterian churches are largely indebted to him for the forms of their dogmas and organisation
1654 Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller a Bohemian rabbi and Talmudist, best known for writing a commentary on the Mishnah called the Tosafot Yom-Tov. Heller was one of the major Talmudic scholars in Prague and in Poland during the "Golden Age" before 1648
1657 Frans Snyders a Flemish painter of animals and still lifes.
1662 Blaise Pascal a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method
1680 John Eudes a French missionary and priest, who founded the Congregation of Jesus and Mary and the Order of Our Lady of Charity, and was the author of the propers for the Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. He has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
1686 Jean-Baptiste Cotelier a Patristic scholar and Catholic theologian.
1691 Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha engaged in a war against the Holy League countries in the Great Turkish War. He was a member of the Köprülü family of Albanian origin. His father Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, his elder brother Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, as well as his two brothers-in-law were former grand viziers. His epithet Fazıl means "wise" in Ottoman Turkish
1692 John Proctor a farmer and tavern keeper in 17th-century Massachusetts. He was the son of John Proctor, and Martha Harper. During the Salem Witch Trials he was accused of witchcraft, convicted and hanged
1699 José Saenz d'Aguirre a Cardinal, and learned Spanish Benedictine.
1753 Balthasar Neumann a German military artillery engineer and architect who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Würzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, called Vierzehnheiligen in German.
1769 Matthew Brettingham an 18th-century Englishman who rose from humble origins to supervise the construction of Holkham Hall, and become one of the country's best-known architects of his generation. Much of his principal work has since been demolished, particularly his work in London, where he revolutionised the design of the grand townhouse. As a result he is often overlooked today, remembered principally for his Palladian remodelling of numerous country houses, many of them situated in the East Anglia area of Britain. As Brettingham neared the pinnacle of his career, Palladianism began to fall out of fashion and neoclassicism was introduced, championed by the young Robert Adam
1777 Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben a German naturalist from Quedlinburg.
1780 Johann de Kalb a German-born French officer who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and was killed in action during the Battle of Camden.
1782 Francesco de Mura an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active mainly in Naples and Turin. His late work reflects the style of neoclassicism
1783 Franz Xaver Messerschmidt a German-Austrian sculptor most famous for his "character heads", a collection of busts with faces contorted in extreme facial expressions.
1804 Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville a French Vice-admiral. He fought in the American War of Independence and became a prominent figure of the French Revolutionary Wars and of the Napoleonic wars
1804 Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer born in Delle, near Belfort, became a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and on three occasions led armies in battle.
1808 Fredrik Henrik af Chapman a Swedish shipbuilder, scientist and officer in the Swedish navy. He was also manager of the Karlskrona shipyard 1782-1793. Chapman is credited as the first person to apply scientific methods to shipbuilding and is considered to be the first naval architect
1814 Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt a Finnish, Swedish and Russian courtier and diplomat. In Finland, he is considered one of the great Finnish statesmen. Born in Tarvasjoki, Finland, he was the great grandson of Charles XII of Sweden's general, Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. His advice to Russia's Tsar Alexander I was of utmost importance for securing the autonomy of the Grand Duchy of Finland
1815 Charles de la Bédoyère a French General during the reign of Emperor Napoleon I who was executed in 1815.
1821 Marie-Denise Villers a French painter, who specialized in portraits.
1822 Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre a French mathematician and astronomer. He was also director of the Paris Observatory, and author of well-known books on the history of astronomy from ancient times to the 18th century
1831 László Skultéty the longest serving Hungarian Hussar in Hungarian history. He served 81 years as a cavalryman before his retirement. He volunteered for the Ghilányi Hussar regiment when he was 12. Skultéty served under András Hadik during the Seven Years' War, and participated in the capture of the Prussian capital, Berlin. He died at the age of 93. His tomb was renovated in 1898, when citizens of Arad erected an obelisk
1853 Sir George Cockburn 10th Baronet a Royal Navy officer. As a captain he was present at the battle of Cape St Vincent in February 1797 during the French Revolutionary Wars and commanded the naval support at the reduction of Martinique in February 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars. He also directed the capture and burning of Washington on 24 August 1814 as an advisor to Major General Robert Ross during the War of 1812. He went on to be First Naval Lord and in that capacity sought to improve the standards of gunnery in the fleet, forming a gunnery school at Portsmouth; later he ensured that the Navy had latest steam and screw technology and put emphasis of the ability to manage seamen without the need to resort to physical punishment
1854 John Lawrence Grattan a mid-19th century US Cavalry officer, whose poor judgement and inexperience led to the Grattan massacre, which was a major instigator for the First Sioux War.
1854 Conquering Bear a Brulé Lakota chief who signed the Fort Laramie Treaty. He was killed in 1854 when troops from Fort Laramie entered his encampment to arrest a Sioux who had shot a calf belonging to a Mormon emigerant. Little Thunder took over as chief after his death. All 30 troopers in the army detachment were annihilated, in what would be called the Grattan massacre or "the Mormon Cow War" according to Army Historian S.L.A. Marshall in his book "Crimsoned Prairie."
1856 Charles Frédéric Gerhardt a French chemist.
1863 Alexander Karl Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1834 until 1863 he was the last duke of the Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg
1863 John A. Gurley a U.S. Congressman from Ohio during the early part of the American Civil War. He was appointed as the first Governor of the Arizona Territory, but died before taking office
1864 María Amparo Muñoz 1st Countess of Vista Alegre the daughter of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, queen dowager and regent of Spain, and her morganatic second husband, Agustín Fernando Muñoz. Her full title was María de los Desamparados Muñoz y de Borbón, condesa de Vista Alegre
1872 Jean Antoine Arthur Gris a French botanist who was a native of Châtillon-sur-Seine, in the department of Côte-d'Or.
1874 Carl Gustav Calwer a German entomologist who specialised in Coleoptera.