August 19 events in history

1153 Baldwin III of Jerusalem takes control of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from his mother Melisende, and also captures Ascalon
1504 In Ireland, the Hiberno-Norman de Burghs (Burkes) and Anglo-Norman Fitzgeralds fight in the Battle of Knockdoe
1561 Mary, Queen of Scots, who was 18-years-old, returns to Scotland after spending 13 years in France
1612 The "Samlesbury witches", three women from the Lancashire village of Samlesbury, England, are put on trial, accused of practicing witchcraft, one of the most famous witch trials in British history
1666 Second Anglo-Dutch War: Rear Admiral Robert Holmes leads a raid on the Dutch island of Terschelling, destroying 150 merchant ships, an act later known as "Holmes's Bonfire"
1692 Salem witch trials: In Salem, Province of Massachusetts Bay, five people, one woman and four men, including a clergyman, are executed after being convicted of witchcraft
1745 Prince Charles Edward Stuart raises his standard in Glenfinnan: The start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion, known as "the 45"
1759 Battle of Lagos Naval battle during the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France
1768 Saint Isaac's Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia
1772 Gustav III of Sweden stages a coup d'état, in which he assumes power and enacts a new constitution that divides power between the Riksdag and the King
1782 American Revolutionary War: Battle of Blue Licks: The last major engagement of the war, almost ten months after the surrender of the British commander Charles Cornwallis following the Siege of Yorktown
1812 War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning the nickname "Old Ironsides"
1813 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina's Second Triumvirate
1839 The French government announces that Louis Daguerre's photographic process is a gift "free to the world"
1848 California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January)
1854 The First Sioux War begins when United States Army soldiers kill Lakota chief Conquering Bear and in return are massacred
1861 First ascent of Weisshorn, fifth highest summit in the Alps
1862 American Indian Wars: During an uprising in Minnesota, Lakota warriors decide not to attack heavily-defended Fort Ridgely and instead turn to the settlement of New Ulm, killing white settlers along the way
1895 American Frontier murderer and outlaw John Wesley Hardin is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas
1909 The first automobile race at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway
1914 The Ottoman-Bulgarian alliance is signed in Sofia
1919 Afghanistan gains full independence from the United Kingdom
1927 Metropolitan Sergius proclaims the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet Union
1934 The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio
1934 The creation of the position Führer is approved by the German electorate with 89.9% of the popular vote
1940 First flight of the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber
1942 World War II: Operation Jubilee: The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division leads an amphibious assault by allied forces on Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, France and fails, many Canadians are killed or captured. The operation was intended to develop and try new amphibious landing tactics for the coming full invasion in Normandy
1944 World War II: Liberation of Paris: Paris, France rises against German occupation with the help of Allied troops
1945 August Revolution: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam
1953 Cold War: The CIA and MI6 help to overthrow the government of Mohammad Mosaddegh in Iran and reinstate the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
1955 In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane, claims 200 lives
1960 Sputnik program: Korabl-Sputnik 2: The Soviet Union launches the satellite with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, two rats and a variety of plants
1960 Cold War: In Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage
1964 Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, was launched
1965 Japanese prime minister Eisaku Satō becomes the first post-World War II sitting prime minister to visit Okinawa Prefecture
1980 Saudia Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar burns after making an emergency landing at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing 301 people
1981 Gulf of Sidra Incident: United States fighters intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra
1987 Hungerford massacre: In the United Kingdom, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with a semi-automatic rifle and then commits suicide
1989 Several hundred East Germans cross the frontier between Hungary and Austria during the Pan-European Picnic, part of the events that began the process of the Fall of the Berlin Wall
1989 Radio Caroline, the offshore pirate station in the North Sea, is raided by British and Dutch governments
1989 Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist prime minister in 42 years
1991 Crown Heights riot: Black groups target Hasidic Jews on the streets of Crown Heights in New York, New York for three days, after two black children were hit by a car driven by a Hasidic man
1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union, August Coup: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Ukraine
1999 In Belgrade, Yugoslavia, tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević
2002 Khankala Mi-26 crash: A Russian Mil Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside Grozny, killing 118 soldiers
2003 A suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem, Israel, planned by Hamas, kills 23 Israelis, seven of them children, in the Shmuel HaNavi bus bombing
2003 A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency's top envoy Sérgio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees
2005 A series of strong storms lashes Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities. In Toronto, it is also dubbed the "Toronto Supercell"
2005 The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins
2009 A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others