Died on August 21

672 Emperor Kōbun the 39th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
784 Alberic of Utrecht today the Netherlands.
1131 Baldwin II of Jerusalem the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.
1148 William II Count of Nevers a crusader in the Crusade of 1101.
1157 Alfonso VII of León and Castile born Alfonso Raimúndez, called the Emperor , became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. Alfonso first used the title Emperor of All Spain, alongside his mother Urraca, once his mother vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116. Alfonso later held another investiture in 1135 in a grand ceremony reasserting his claims to the Imperial title. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in the Iberian peninsula
1190 Godfrey III Count of Louvain count of Louvain , landgrave of Brabant, margrave of Antwerp, and duke of Lower Lorraine from 1142 to his death.
1245 Alexander of Hales a theologian and philosopher important in the development of Scholasticism and of the Franciscan School.
1271 Alphonse Count of Poitiers the Count of Poitou from 1225 and Count of Toulouse from 1249.
1534 Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam a prominent member of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes and later Malta. Having risen to the position of Prior of the Langue of Auvergne, he was elected 44th Grand Master of the Order in 1521
1568 Jean Parisot de Valette a French nobleman and 49th Grand Master of the Order of Malta, from 21 August 1557 to his death in 1568. As a Knight Hospitaller, joining the order in the Langue de Provence, he fought with distinction against the Turks at Rhodes. As Grand Master, Valette became the Order's hero and most illustrious leader, commanding the resistance against the Ottomans at the Great Siege of Malta in 1565, sometimes regarded as one of the greatest sieges of all time
1614 Elizabeth Báthory a countess from the renowned Báthory family of nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary. She has been labelled the most prolific female serial killer in history, though the precise number of her victims is debated. Báthory and four collaborators were accused of torturing and killing hundreds of girls between 1585 and 1610. The highest number of victims cited during Báthory's trial was 650. However, this number comes from the claim by a woman named Susannah that Jacob Szilvássy, Countess Báthory's court official, had seen the figure in one of Báthory's private books. The book was never revealed, and Szilvássy never mentioned it in his testimony. Despite the evidence against Elizabeth, her family's influence kept her from facing trial. She was imprisoned in December 1610 within Csejte Castle, Upper Hungary, now in Slovakia, where she remained immured in a set of rooms until her death four years later
1622 Juan de Tassis 2nd Count of Villamediana a Spanish poet. In Spain he is simply known as Conde de Villamediana
1627 Jacques Mauduit a French composer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the most innovative French composers of the late 16th century, combining voices and instruments in new ways, and importing some of the grand polychoral style of the Venetian School from Italy; he also composed a famous Requiem for the funeral of Pierre de Ronsard
1649 Richard Crashaw an English poet, styled "the divine," and known as one of the central figures associated with the Metaphysical poets in 17th Century English literature. The son of a prominent Puritan minister, Crashaw was educated at Charterhouse School and Pembroke College, Cambridge. After taking a degree, Crashaw began to publish religious poetry and to teach at Cambridge
1666 Isabella d'Este Duchess of Parma Duchess of Parma, and second wife of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese. She was the paternal grandmother of Elisabetta Farnese
1673 Isaac Sweers a 17th-century Dutch admiral.
1673 Henry Grey 1st Earl of Stamford an English nobleman and military leader. He was the eldest son of Sir John Grey and Elizabeth Nevill. His mother was probably a daughter of Edward Nevill, 8th Baron Bergavenny and his wife Rachel Lennard
1689 William Cleland a Scottish poet and soldier.
1723 Dimitrie Cantemir twice Prince of Moldavia. He was also a prolific man of letters – philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer
1736 Emanuele d'Astorga an Italian composer known mainly for his Stabat Mater.
1757 Johann Samuel König a mathematician. Johann Bernoulli instructed both König and Pierre Louis Maupertuis as pupils during the same period. König is remembered largely for his disagreements with Leonhard Euler, concerning the principle of least action. He is also remembered as a tutor to Émilie du Châtelet, one of the few female physicists of the 18th century
1762 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu an English aristocrat and writer. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from Turkey, as wife to the British ambassador, which have been described by Billie Melman as “the very first example of a secular work by a woman about the Muslim Orient”
1763 Charles Wyndham 2nd Earl of Egremont a British statesman who served as Secretary of State for the Southern Department 1761-63.
1771 Alexis Fontaine des Bertins a French mathematician. He was a patron and teacher of Jean-Jacques de Marguerie
1775 Daher el-Omar the autonomous Arab ruler of Northern Palestine during the mid-18th century. The founder of modern Haifa, he fortified many cities, among them Acre
1798 James Wilson one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence. Wilson was elected twice to the Continental Congress, where he represented Pennsylvania, and was a major force in drafting the United States Constitution. A leading legal theorist, he was one of the six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States
1799 Johann Julius Walbaum a physician, naturalist and taxonomist. He was the first to describe many previously unknown species from remote parts of the globe, such as the Great Barracuda , the Chum salmon from the Kamchatka River in Siberia, and the curimatá-pacú from the São Francisco River in Brazil. He was also the first to observe gloves as a preventative against infection in medical surgery. In 1758, the gloves he observed were made from the cecum of the sheep, rather than rubber, which had not yet been discovered
1811 Barbara Zdunk an ethnically Polish alleged arsonist and witch who lived in the city of Rößel, now in Poland but between 1772 and 1945 part of Prussia. She is considered by many to have been the last woman executed for witchcraft in Europe. This is doubtful because witchcraft was not a criminal offense in Prussia at the time. It is thus likely that she was convicted, formally at least and most probably wrongly, of arson
1813 Sophia Magdalena of Denmark Queen of Sweden as the spouse of King Gustav III.
1814 Benjamin Thompson an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. He also served as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Loyalist forces in America during the American Revolutionary War. After the end of the war he moved to London where his administrative talents were recognized when he was appointed a full Colonel, and in 1784 received a knighthood from King George III. A prolific designer, he also drew designs for warships. He later moved to Bavaria and entered government service there, being appointed Bavarian Army Minister and re-organizing the army, and, in 1791, was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire
1815 Carl Johan Adlercreutz a Swedish general and statesman, born in Borga, Finland on family estates. Entering the Swedish army aged 13 in the Finnish Light Cavalry Brigade, he was present when Gustav III launched his coup-d’etat. He studied military theory in Stockholm
1823 Markos Botsaris a general and hero of the Greek War of Independence and captain of the Souliotes. Botsaris is among the most revered national heroes in Greece
1836 Claude-Louis Navier a French engineer and physicist who specialized in mechanics.
1836 John Gore (Royal Navy admiral) a British naval commander of the 18th and 19th centuries. His father was Colonel John Gore
1836 Edward Turner Bennett an English zoologist and writer. He was the elder brother of the botanist John Joseph Bennett
1838 Adelbert von Chamisso a German poet and botanist. He wrote Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who sold his shadow
1844 Georg Friedrich Benecke a German philologist.
1845 Vincent-Marie Viénot Count of Vaublanc a French royalist politician, writer and artist. He was a deputy for the Seine-et-Marne département in the French Legislative Assembly, served as President of the same body, and from 26 September 1815 to 7 May 1816, he was the French Minister of the Interior
1852 Adrian Krzyżanowski a Polish mathematician and translator of German literature.
1853 Charles Tristan marquis de Montholon a French general during the Napoleonic Wars. He chose to go into exile on Saint Helena with the ex-Emperor after Napoleon's second abdication
1854 Thomas Clayton an American lawyer and politician from Dover in Kent County, Delaware. He was a member of the Federalist Party and later the Whig Party. He served in the Delaware General Assembly, as Attorney General of Delaware, as Secretary of State of Delaware, as Chief Justice of the Delaware Supreme Court, as U.S. Representative from Delaware, and as U.S. Senator from Delaware. In 1846 he was one of two members of the United States Senate to vote against declaring war on Mexico
1862 Laval Nugent von Westmeath a soldier of Irish birth who fought in the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies.
1867 Juan Álvarez a general and interim president of Mexico for a few months in 1855. He fought in all the major wars of his day, from the War of Independence through the Pastry War, the Mexican-American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of Benito Juárez's Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Antonio López de Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as La Reforma
1869 Thomas Hodgskin an English socialist writer on political economy, critic of capitalism and defender of free trade and early trade unions.
1870 Gustav Struve a German politician, lawyer and publicist, and a revolutionary during the German revolution of 1848-1849 in Baden. He also spent over a decade in the United States and was active there as a reformer
1872 David Kalisch a German playwright and humorist.
1874 Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt a Belgian Roman Catholic politician. He was born in the castle of Schabroek in Sint-Truiden on 26 February 1794. The count died in Heusden, in the Meylandt Castle on 21 August 1874 in Belgium
1875 George Coles (politician) a Canadian politician, being the first Premier of Prince Edward Island, and a Father of Canadian Confederation.
1876 Harry T. Hays an American Army officer serving in the Mexican-American War and a general who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
1876 Gustav Simon (surgeon) a German surgeon.