Born on August 22

1412 Frederick II Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony and was Landgrave of Thuringia.
1601 Georges de Scudéry a French novelist, dramatist and poet.
1624 Jean Regnault de Segrais a French poet and novelist born in Caen. He was elected a member of the Académie française in 1662
1647 Denis Papin a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the steam engine, and of the pressure cooker.
1648 Tsarevich Dmitry Alexeyevich of Russia the first son and heir of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, brother of Tsarevich Alexei Alexeyevich of Russia, Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-brother of Tsar Peter the Great. He died before he had a chance to succeed to the throne. He is buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel
1658 John Ernest IV Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
1673 Tsarevna Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia a Russian playwright. She was the elder daughter of Tsar Alexis and his second wife, Natalia Naryshkina, and the sister of Peter the Great
1679 Pierre Guérin de Tencin archbishop of Embrun and Lyon, and a cardinal. His sister Claudine was a spur to his career
1710 Johann August Nahl a German sculptor and stuccist.
1738 John Courtenay (1738–1816) an Irish officer in the British Army who became a politician in England. He was a Member of Parliament at Westminster from 1780 to 1807, and again in 1812
1741 Charles Clerke an officer in the Royal Navy who sailed on four voyages of exploration, 3 with Captain James Cook. When Cook was killed during his 3rd expedition to the Pacific, Clerke took command but died later in the voyage from tuberculosis
1760 Pope Leo XII born Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga, reigned from 28 September 1823 to his death in 1829.
1764 Charles Percier a neoclassical French architect, interior decorator and designer, who worked in a close partnership with Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, originally his friend from student days. For work undertaken from 1794 onward, trying to ascribe conceptions or details to one or other of them is fruitless; it is impossible to disentangle their cooperative efforts in this fashion. Together, Percier and Fontaine were inventors and major proponents of the rich, grand, consciously-archaeological versions of neoclassicism we recognise as Directoire style and Empire style
1765 Carl Ludwig Willdenow a German botanist, pharmacist, and plant taxonomist. He is considered one of the founders of phytogeography, the study of the geographic distribution of plants. Willdenow was also a mentor of Alexander von Humboldt one of the earliest and best known phytogeographers
1767 Jean Joseph Amable Humbert a French soldier, a participant in the French Revolution, who led a failed invasion of Ireland to assist Irish rebels in 1798. Born in the townland of La Coâre Saint-Nabord, outside Remiremont Vosges, he was a sergeant in the National Guard of Lyon, and rapidly advanced through the ranks to become brigadier general on 9 April 1794, and fought in the Western campaigns before being allocated to the Army of the Rhine
1768 Josef Abel an Austrian historical painter and etcher.
1771 Henry Maudslay a British machine tool innovator, tool and die maker, and inventor. He is considered a founding father of machine tool technology
1772 Joseph Barbanègre a French General and a Baron of the First French Empire. He was governor of the Fortress of Huningue during the siege of the 1815 and held out until the end of hostilities, surrendering the place with full military honours on 26 August 1815
1776 Carlo Amati an Italian architect.
1778 James Kirke Paulding an American writer and, for a time, the United States Secretary of the Navy.
1787 Christian Friedrich Baron Stockmar an Anglo-Belgian statesman, who was a leading player in the affairs of the United Kingdom under Queen Victoria.
1789 Nikolai Khmelnitsky a Russian dramatist]], literary critic, translator, in 1812-1814 an army officer and state official. Khmelnitsky's chosen genre was the saloon comedy, and many prominent authors, Alexander Pushkin among them, valued him as an influential figure of the Russian literary scene of the 1820s
1798 Richard Robert Madden an Irish doctor, writer, abolitionist and historian of the United Irishmen. Madden took an active role in trying to impose anti-slavery rules in Jamaica on behalf of the British government
1800 William S. Harney a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. He was born in what is today part of Nashville, Tennessee but at the time was known as Haysborough
1802 John Insley Blair an American entrepreneur, railroad magnate, philanthropist and one of the 19th century's wealthiest men.
1802 Félix Marie Charles Texier a French historian, architect and archaeologist. Texier published a number of significant works involving personal travels throughout Asia Minor and the Middle East. These books included descriptions and maps of ancient sites, reports of regional geography and geology, descriptions of art works and architecture, et al
1818 Carlo Pisacane an Italian patriot and one of the first Italian socialist thinkers.
1818 Rudolf von Jhering a German jurist. He is known for his 1872 book Der Kampf ums Recht , as a legal scholar, and as the founder of a modern sociological and historical school of law
1823 Louis Martin (lay brother) a French layman and the father of Saint Thérèse de Lisieux. His wife was Blessed Marie-Azélie Guérin
1825 Julius Schulhoff a Bohemian pianist and composer of Jewish birth.
1827 Emil von Qvanten a Finnish-Swedish poet, librarian, publisher and politician.
1827 Ezra Butler Eddy a Canadian businessman and political figure.
1830 Angiolina Bosio an Italian operatic soprano who had a major international career from 1846 until her premature death in 1859 at the age of 29. She sang at the most important opera houses in Boston, Havana, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York, Paris, Philadelphia, Saint Petersburg, and Verona. She was particularly admired for her performances in operas by Giuseppe Verdi
1834 Paul Kummer a minister, teacher, and scientist in Zerbst, Germany, known chiefly for his contribution to mycological nomenclature. Earlier classification of agarics by pioneering fungal taxonomist Elias Magnus Fries designated only a very small number of genera, with most species falling into Agaricus. These few genera were divided into a large number of tribi. In his 1871 work, Der Führer in die Pilzkunde, Kummer raised the majority of Fries tribi to the status of genus, thereby establishing many of the generic names for agarics that are in use to this day
1834 Samuel Pierpont Langley an American astronomer, physicist, inventor of the bolometer and pioneer of aviation. He attended Boston Latin School, graduated from English High School of Boston, was an assistant in the Harvard College Observatory, then moved to a job ostensibly as a professor of mathematics at the United States Naval Academy, but actually was sent there to restore the Academy's small observatory. In 1867, he became the director of the Allegheny Observatory and a professor of astronomy at the Western University of Pennsylvania, now known as the University of Pittsburgh, a post he kept until 1891 even while he became the third Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1887. Langley was the founder of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
1836 Archibald Willard an American painter who was born and raised in Bedford, Ohio.
1837 August Morawitz a Russian entomologist interested in Coleoptera. He became Curator of the insect collections at the Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Science when Édouard Ménétries retired from that post.He wrote. Vorläufige Diagnosen neuer Coleopteren aus Südost-Sibirien. Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences, Petersburg, 5: 231-265. August Feodorovitsh Morawitz is not to be confused with his brother Ferdinand Ferdinandovitsch Morawitz another, Petersburg prominent entomologist associated with the Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Science
1841 Joaquín Crespo a politician, soldier, a member of the Great Liberal Party of Venezuela and President of Venezuela from 1884 to 1886 and again from 1892 to 1898. During the second Joaquín Crespo regime, the Venezuela Crisis of 1895 saw Venezuela's longstanding dispute with Great Britain about the territory of Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory, come to a head. An international arbitral panel ultimately awarded most of the territory to Britain. Crespo was killed in battle
1844 George W. DeLong a United States Navy officer and explorer.
1844 Sophia Tolstaya a Russian diarist and the wife of Russian novelist and thinker Leo Tolstoy.
1845 André-Joseph Allar a French sculptor.
1845 William Lewis Douglas a U.S. businessman and politician from Massachusetts. He served as the 42nd Governor of Massachusetts from 1905 until 1906. He also founded and oversaw the growth of the L. Douglas Shoe Company, a highly successful Brockton, Massachusetts business that became one of the world's largest shoe manufacturers. He also opened the first nationwide chain of shoe stores devoted to selling the company's products
1846 Amalie Skram a Norwegian author and feminist who gave voice to a woman's point of view with her naturalist writing. She moved to Denmark in 1894 where she settled in Copenhagen with her husband, the Danish writer Erik Skram. She is considered the most important female writer of the Modern Breakthrough
1847 John Forrest an Australian explorer, the first Premier of Western Australia and a cabinet minister in Australia's first federal parliament.
1847 Alexander Mackenzie (composer) a Scottish composer, conductor and teacher best known for his oratorios, violin and piano pieces, Scottish folk music and works for the stage.
1848 Melville Elijah Stone a newspaper publisher, the founder of the Chicago Daily News, and was the general manager of the reorganized Associated Press.
1853 Alexander Litvinov a general in the Imperial Russian Army.
1854 Milan I of Serbia the ruler of Serbia from 1868 to 1889, first as prince and as king.
1855 Alexander Chekhov a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist and memoirist, and the elder brother of Anton Chekhov.
1857 Ned Hanlon (baseball) an American professional baseball player and manager whose career spanned from 1876 to 1914. He was posthumously inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1996 by vote of the Veterans Committee