Died on August 22

408 Stilicho a high-ranking general in the Roman army who became, for a time, the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire. Half Vandal and married to the niece of the Emperor Theodosius, Stilicho’s regency for the underage Honorius marked the high point of German advancement in the service of Rome. After many years of victories against a number of enemies, both barbarian and Roman, a series of political and military disasters finally allowed his enemies in the court of Honorius to remove him from power, culminating in his arrest and subsequent execution in 408. Known for his military successes and sense of duty, Stilicho was, in the words of historian Edward Gibbon, “the last of the Roman generals.”
634 Abu Bakr a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE, when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As Caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was called Al-Siddiq and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims
1155 Emperor Konoe the 76th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1241 Pope Gregory IX Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for instituting the Papal Inquisition, a mechanism that severely punished people accused of heresy, in response to the failures of the episcopal inquisitions established during the time of Pope Lucius III through his papal bull Ad abolendam issued in 1184
1280 Pope Nicholas III Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.
1304 John II Count of Holland Avesnes , Count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland.
1338 William II Duke of Athens the third son of Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou. He inherited the Duchy of Athens after the death of his elder brother Manfred on 9 November 1317
1350 Philip VI of France the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death
1358 Isabella of France Queen of England as the wife of Edward She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Queen Isabella was notable at the time for her beauty, diplomatic skills, and intelligence
1485 John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk an English nobleman and soldier, and the first Howard Duke of Norfolk. He was a close friend and loyal supporter of King Richard III, with whom he was slain at the Battle of Bosworth
1485 Richard III of England King of England from 1483 until his death in 1485 in the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marks the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the play Richard III by William Shakespeare
1523 Lucien Lord of Monaco became Lord of Monaco on 11 October 1505, having murdered his predecessor and brother, Jean II, and held that sovereignty until his death.
1527 Gonzalo de Sandoval a Spanish conquistador in New Spain and briefly co-governor of the colony while Hernán Cortés was away from the capital.
1545 Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk the son of Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn. Through his third wife Mary Tudor he was brother-in-law to Henry VIII. His father was the standard-bearer of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond and was slain by Richard III in person at the battle of Bosworth Field. Suffolk died of unknown causes at Guildford
1553 John Dudley 1st Duke of Northumberland an English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of the young King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553, and unsuccessfully tried to install Lady Jane Grey on the English throne after the King's death. The son of Edmund Dudley, a minister of Henry VII executed by Henry VIII, John Dudley became the ward of Sir Edward Guildford at the age of seven. He grew up in Guildford's household together with his future wife, Guildford's daughter Jane, with whom he was to have 13 children. Dudley served as Vice-Admiral and Lord Admiral from 1537 until 1547, during which time he set novel standards of navy organisation and was an innovative commander at sea. He also developed a strong interest in overseas exploration. Dudley took part in the 1544 campaigns in Scotland and France and was one of Henry VIII's intimates in the last years of the reign. He was also a leader of the religious reform party at court
1572 Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland executed for treason. He was later beatified by the Catholic Church
1575 Paulus Juusten the first bishop of Viipuri, and later, bishop of Turku, Finland. He was an esteemed teacher and a Swedish royal envoy
1576 Bálint Bakfark a Hungarian and Polish composer of Saxon origin, and lutenist of the Renaissance. He was enormously influential as a lutenist in his time, and renowned as a virtuoso on the instrument
1584 Jan Kochanowski a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
1599 Luca Marenzio an Italian composer and singer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the most renowned composers of madrigals, and wrote some of the most famous examples of the form in its late stage of development, prior to its early Baroque transformation by Monteverdi. In all, Marenzio wrote around 500 madrigals, ranging from the lightest to the most serious styles, packed with word-painting, chromaticism, and other characteristics of the late madrigal style. Marenzio was influential as far away as England, where his earlier, lighter work appeared in 1588 in the Musica Transalpina, the collection that initiated the madrigal craze in that country. Marenzio worked in the service of several aristocratic Italian families, including the Gonzaga, Este, and Medici, and spent most of his career in Rome
1607 Bartholomew Gosnold an English lawyer, explorer, and privateer who was instrumental in founding the Virginia Company of London, and Jamestown in colonial America. He led the first recorded European expedition to Cape Cod. He is considered by Preservation Virginia to be the "prime mover of the colonization of Virginia"
1614 Philipp Ludwig Count Palatine of Neuburg the Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1569 until 1614.
1643 Johann Georg Wirsung a German anatomist who was a long-time prosector in Padua.
1652 Jacob De la Gardie a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire.
1653 Augustus Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the unified principality of Anhalt. From 1603, he was ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau
1664 Maria Cunitz an accomplished German astronomer, and one of the most notable female astronomers of the modern era. She authored a book Urania propitia, in which she provided new tables, new ephemera, and a more elegant solution to Kepler's problem. The Cunitz crater on Venus is named after her. The minor planet 12624 Mariacunitia is named in her honour
1678 Giovanni Battista Falda an Italian architect, engraver and artist. He is known for his engravings of both contemporary and antique structures of Rome
1680 John George II Elector of Saxony the Elector of Saxony from 1656 to 1680. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin
1701 John Granville 1st Earl of Bath an English Royalist soldier and statesman during the Civil War who played a major role in the 1660 Restoration of the Monarchy and was later appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was the first in his family to adopt the modernised spelling as Granville of their ancient surname Grenville, which emphasised their ancient 11th century origin from the Normandy manor of Granville, Manche
1711 Louis François duc de Boufflers a Marshal of France.
1712 Sophie Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt a member of the House of Hesse and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Eisenberg.
1729 Torii Kiyonobu I renowned for his work on kabuki signboards and related materials. Along with his father Torii Kiyomoto, he is said to have been one of the founders of the Torii school of painting
1752 William Whiston an English theologian, historian, and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton. He is now probably best known for his translation of the Antiquities of the Jews and other works by Josephus, his A New Theory of the Earth, and his Arianism
1779 Charles Clerke an officer in the Royal Navy who sailed on four voyages of exploration, 3 with Captain James Cook. When Cook was killed during his 3rd expedition to the Pacific, Clerke took command but died later in the voyage from tuberculosis
1789 Johann Heinrich Tischbein one of the most respected European painters in the 18th century and an important member of the Tischbein dynasty of German painters, which spanned four generations.
1793 Cäcilia Weber the mother of Constanze Weber and the mother-in-law of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
1793 Louis de Noailles a French peer and Marshal of France. He was the son of Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, niece of Madame de Maintenon, and a nephew of Marie Victoire de Noailles, daughter-in-law of Louis XIV of France
1797 Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he fought in the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession, and mounted several successful campaigns in the Rhineland in the initial years of the French Revolutionary Wars, he is probably most remembered for his unsuccessful operations against Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796 campaign in Italy
1806 Jean-Honoré Fragonard a French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism. One of the most prolific artists active in the last decades of the Ancien Régime, Fragonard produced more than 550 paintings , of which only five are dated. Among his most popular works are genre paintings conveying an atmosphere of intimacy and veiled eroticism
1807 Maria Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh. Her marriage to the Duke without the knowledge of King George III led to the passing of the Royal Marriages Act 1772
1811 Juan de Villanueva a Spanish architect. Alongside Ventura Rodríguez, Villanueva is the best known architect of Spanish Neoclassicism
1812 Charles-Étienne Gudin de La Sablonnière a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
1818 Warren Hastings the first Governor-General of Bengal from 1772 and the first Governor-General of India 1773 to 1785. He was accused of corruption and impeached in 1787, but after a long trial he was acquitted in 1795. He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1814
1828 Franz Joseph Gall a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.
1850 Nikolaus Lenau the nom de plume of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch Edler von Strehlenau , a German-language Austrian poet.
1854 Henri-Joseph Paixhans a French artillery officer of the beginning of the 19th century.
1860 Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps a French painter.
1861 Xianfeng Emperor the ninth Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861.
1868 Pierre-Luc-Charles Ciceri a leading French set designer of his era.
1868 Jean-François Barrière a French historian. He wrote about the French revolution, most notably an annotated biography of Madame Roland entitled Memoirs de Madame Roland, Avec une Notice sur sa Vie, des Notes et des Eclaircissemens historiques par Saint-Albin Berville et Jean-François Barrière, edited and published in 1827 by Honoré de Balzac