Born on August 23

406 Radagaisus a Gothic king who led an invasion of Roman Italy in late 405 and the first half of 406. A committed Pagan, Radagaisus evidently planned to sacrifice the Senators of the Christian Roman Empire to the gods, and to burn Rome to the ground. Radagaisus was executed after being defeated by the half-Vandal general Stilicho. 12,000 of his higher-status fighters were drafted into the Roman army and some of the remaining followers were dispersed, while so many of the others were sold into slavery that the slave market briefly collapsed. These Goths later joined Alaric I in his conquest of Rome in 410
963 Richard II Duke of Normandy the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora. He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy
1388 Eberhard IV Count of Württemberg the ruling Count of Württemberg from 1417 until his death.
1486 Sigismund von Herberstein a Carniolan diplomat, writer, historian and member of the Holy Roman Empire Imperial Council. He was most noted for his extensive writing on the geography, history and customs of Russia and contributed greatly to early Western European knowledge of that area
1498 Miguel da Paz Prince of Portugal a Portuguese royal infante , son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his first wife Isabella of Asturias. He was recognised as heir both to his father's kingdom of Portugal, and to his grandparents' kingdoms of Castile, León and Aragon. As such, he was styled Prince of Portugal, Prince of Asturias and Prince of Girona
1524 François Hotman a French Protestant lawyer and writer, associated with the legal humanists and with the monarchomaques, who struggled against absolute monarchy. His first name is often written 'Francis' in English. His surname is Latinized by himself as Hotomanus, by others as Hotomannus and Hottomannus. He has been called "one of the first modern revolutionaries"
1579 Thomas Dempster a Scottish scholar and historian. Born into the aristocracy in Aberdeenshire, which comprises regions of both the Scottish highlands and the Scottish lowlands, he was sent abroad as a youth for his education. The Dempsters were Catholic in an increasingly Protestant country and had a reputation for being quarrelsome. Thomas' brother James, outlawed for an attack on his father, spent some years as a pirate in the northern islands, escaped by volunteering for military service in the Low Countries and was drawn and quartered there for insubordination. Thomas' father lost the family fortune in clan feuding and was beheaded for forgery
1623 Stanisław Lubieniecki a Polish Socinian theologist, historian, astronomer, and writer. He is the eponym of the lunar crater Lubiniezky
1646 Louise Elisabeth of Courland a princess of Courland from the Ketteler family by birth and by marriage Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg.
1659 Henry Every an English pirate who operated in the Atlantic and Indian oceans in the mid-1690s. He likely used several aliases throughout his career, including Henry Bridgeman, and was known as Long Ben to his crewmen and associates. Dubbed "The Arch Pirate" and "The King of Pirates" by contemporaries, Every was the most notorious pirate of his time; he earned his infamy by becoming one of the few major pirate captains to retire with his loot without being arrested or killed in battle, and also for being the perpetrator of what has been called the most profitable pirate raid in history. Although Every's career as a pirate lasted only two years, his exploits captured the public's imagination, inspired others to take up piracy, and spawned numerous works of literature
1719 Pierre Poivre a French horticulturist born in Lyon; he was a missionary to China and Cochinchina, Intendant of the Islands of Mauritius and Bourbon, and wearer of the cordon of Michel. He was an uncle to renowned French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat
1724 Abraham Yates Jr. an American lawyer and civil servant from Albany, New York.
1740 Ivan VI of Russia proclaimed Emperor of Russia in 1740, as an infant, although he never actually reigned. Within less than a year, he was overthrown by the Empress Elizabeth of Russia, Peter I's daughter. Ivan spent the rest of his life as a prisoner and was killed by his guards during an attempt made to free him
1741 Jean-François de Galaup comte de Lapérouse a French Navy officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania.
1746 Johann Erich Thunmann a linguist, historian and theologian born in Thoresund in Sweden. He studied at Strängnäs and Uppsala then left Sweden to study at Greifswald. Thunmann was professor of philosophy at the University of Halle
1751 Nikolaus Simrock a German horn player at the court of the Elector of Cologne in Bonn and a music publisher. He was a friend of Ludwig van Beethoven and founder of the Simrock music publishing house. "Highly esteemed as a man and a musician", he remained in contact with Beethoven throughout the 1790s and is a regarded as a "reliable witness" to Beethoven's years in Bonn
1754 Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France. As a result of the Dauphin's death in 1765, Louis succeeded his grandfather in 1774
1757 Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann a German actress. She was the daughter of the actors Konrad Ernst Ackermann and Sophie Charlotte Ackermann
1766 Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg a German botanist, entomologist and ornithologist.
1768 Astley Cooper an English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.
1769 Georges Cuvier a French naturalist and zoologist. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils
1773 Jakob Friedrich Fries a German philosopher. He was born in Barby and died in Jena
1776 Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński a Polish Messianist philosopher who worked in many fields of knowledge, not only as philosopher but also as mathematician, physicist, inventor, lawyer, and economist. He was born Hoene but changed his name in 1815
1777 Princess Adélaïde of Orléans one of the twin daughters of Louis Philippe II d'Orléans, known as Philippe Égalité during the French Revolution, and his wife, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre. She was titled Mademoiselle de Chartres at birth, Mademoiselle d'Orléans at the death of her twin sister in 1782, Mademoiselle , Madame Adélaïde. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, she was a princesse du sang
1781 John M. Berrien a United States Senator and Andrew Jackson's Attorney General.
1781 Friedrich Tiedemann a German anatomist and physiologist.
1783 William Tierney Clark an English civil engineer particularly associated with the design and construction of bridges. He was among the earliest designers of suspension bridges
1785 Oliver Hazard Perry an American naval commander. Born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island, he was the son of USN Captain Christopher Raymond Perry and Sarah Wallace Alexander, and the older brother of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, who compelled the opening of Japan
1797 Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant a mechanician and mathematician who contributed to early stress analysis and also developed the unsteady open channel flow shallow water equations, also known as the Saint-Venant equations that are a fundamental set of equations used in modern hydraulic engineering. The 1-D Saint Venant Equation is a commonly used simplification of the shallow water equations. Although his surname was Barré de Saint-Venant in non-French mathematical literature he is known simply as Saint-Venant. His name is also associated with Saint-Venant's principle of statically equivalent systems of load, Saint-Venant's theorem and for Saint-Venant's compatibility condition, the integrability conditions for a symmetric tensor field to be a strain
1803 Gustaf Wappers best known as the Belgian painter. His work is generally considered to be Flemish and he signed his work with the Flemish form of his name, Gustaf Wappers
1805 Anton von Schmerling born at Vienna, where his father held a high position on the judicial side of the civil service.
1806 Chan Heung the founder of the Choy Li Fut 蔡李佛 martial arts system.
1809 Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky a Russian statesman and diplomat, who played a major role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into the Amur River basin and to the shores of the Sea of Japan.
1811 Auguste Bravais a French physicist known for his work in crystallography, the conception of Bravais lattices, and the formulation of Bravais law. Bravais also studied magnetism, the northern lights, meteorology, geobotany, phyllotaxis, astronomy, and hydrography
1813 Rudolf Köpke a German historian born in Königsberg.
1814 James Roosevelt Bayley an American prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as the first Bishop of Newark and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore
1818 Max Schmidt a German landscape painter.
1819 Ludwig Karl Schmarda an Austrian naturalist and traveler, born at Olmütz, Moravia.
1827 Lord John Hay (Royal Navy admiral of the fleet) a Royal Navy officer and politician. After seeing action in 1842 during the First Opium War, he went ashore with the naval brigade and took part in the defence of Eupatoria in November 1854 and the Siege of Sevastopol in Spring 1855 during the Crimean War. He also took part in the Battle of Taku Forts in August 1860 during the Second Opium War. As a politician, he became Member of Parliament for Wick and later for Ripon. He was sent to the Mediterranean in July 1878 to take control of Cyprus and to occupy it in accordance with decisions reached at the Congress of Berlin. In a highly political appointment, he was made First Naval Lord in March 1886 when the Marquis of Ripon became First Lord of the Admiralty but had to stand down just five months later when William Gladstone's Liberal Government fell from power in August 1886
1829 Moritz Cantor a German historian of mathematics. He is not to be confused with the renowned German mathematician and contemporary Georg Cantor
1832 George King of Saxony a King of Saxony of the House of Wettin.
1833 Giovanni Capellini an Italian geologist and paleontologist. He was a Senator of the Kingdom of Italy in the seventeenth legislature
1836 Marie Henriette of Austria the second Queen consort of the Belgians. She was married to King Leopold II of Belgium
1840 Gabriel von Max a Prague-born Austrian painter.
1842 Osborne Reynolds a prominent innovator in the understanding of fluid dynamics. Separately, his studies of heat transfer between solids and fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design. He spent his entire career at what is now called University of Manchester
1843 William Southam a Canadian newspaper publisher.
1846 Alexander Milne Calder a Scottish American sculptor best known for the architectural sculpture of Philadelphia City Hall. Both his son, Alexander Stirling Calder, and grandson, Alexander "Sandy" Calder, became significant sculptors in the 20th century
1847 George Taylor Jester served as Lieutenant Governor of Texas from 1895 to 1899. He was born in Macoupin County, Illinois to Levi and Diadema Jester. After his father died in 1858, Jester's mother moved the family, joining her father in Navarro County, Texas
1847 Sarah Frances Whiting the instructor to several astronomers, including Annie Jump Cannon.
1849 William Ernest Henley an English poet, critic and editor, best remembered for his 1875 poem "Invictus".