August 23 events in history

79 Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire
406 Gothic king Radagaisus is executed after he is defeated by Roman general Stilicho and 12,000 "barbarians" are incorporated into the Roman army or sold as slaves
476 Odoacer, chieftain of the Germanic tribes (Herulic - Scirian foederati), is proclaimed rex Italiae ("King of Italy") by his troops
634 Abu Bakr dies at Medina and is succeeded by Umar I who becomes the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate
1244 Siege of Jerusalem: The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrenders to Khwarezmian Empire
1268 Battle of Tagliacozzo: The army of Charles of Anjou defeats the Ghibellines supporters of Conradin of Hohenstaufen marking the fall of the Hohenstaufen family from the Imperial and Sicilian thrones, and leading to the new chapter of Angevin domination in Southern Italy
1305 Sir William Wallace is executed for high treason at Smithfield in London
1328 Battle of Cassel: French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers
1382 Siege of Moscow: The Golden Horde led by khan Tokhtamysh lays siege to the capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow
1514 The Battle of Chaldiran ends with a decisive victory for the Sultan Selim I, Ottoman Empire, over the Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty
1521 Christian II of Denmark is deposed as king of Sweden and Gustav Vasa is elected regent
1541 French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada
1572 French Wars of Religion Mob violence against Huguenots in Paris results in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
1592 Japanese invasions of Korea: The Yeongwon Castle is besieged by the Japanese Fourth Division led by Itō Suketaka
1595 Long War: Wallachian prince Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army in the Battle of Călugăreni and achieves a tactical victory
1600 Battle of Gifu Castle: The eastern forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu defeat the western Japanese clans loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori, leading to the destruction of Gifu Castle and serving as a prelude to the Battle of Sekigahara
1614 Fettmilch Uprising: Jews are expelled from Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, following the plundering of the Judengasse
1614 The University of Groningen is established in the Dutch Republic
1628 George Villiers, the first Duke of Buckingham, is assassinated by John Felton
1650 Colonel George Monck of the English Army forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, which will later become the Coldstream Guards
1655 Battle of Sobota: The Swedish Empire led by Charles X Gustav defeats the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1765 Beginning of Burmese–Siamese War
1775 American Revolutionary War: King George III delivers his Proclamation of Rebellion to the Court of St. James's stating that the American colonies have proceeded to a state of open and avowed rebellion
1784 Western North Carolina (now eastern Tennessee) declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin; it is not accepted into the United States, and only lasts for four years
1799 Napoleon I of France leaves Egypt for France en route to seizing power
1813 At the Battle of Grossbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army
1839 The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares for war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War
1858 The Round Oak rail accident occurs in Brierley Hill in the Black Country, England. It is 'Arguably the worst disaster ever to occur on British railways'
1864 The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico except Galveston, Texas
1866 Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague
1873 Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London opens
1896 Officially recognised date of the Cry of Pugad Lawin, the start of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila (actual date and location is disputed)
1898 The Southern Cross Expedition, the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, departs from London
1904 The automobile tire chain is patented
1914 World War I: Battle of Mons: The British Army begins withdrawal
1914 World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China
1921 British airship R-38 experiences structural failure over Hull in England and crashes in the Humber estuary. Of her 49 British and American training crew, only four survive
1923 Captain Lowell Smith and Lieutenant John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours
1927 Italian Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti are executed after a lengthy, controversial trial
1929 Hebron Massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city
1938 English cricketer Len Hutton sets a world record for the highest individual Test innings of 364, during a Test match against Australia
1939 World War II: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland are divided between the two nations
1942 World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad
1943 World War II: Kharkov is liberated as a result of the Battle of Kursk
1944 World War II: Marseille is liberated by the Allies
1944 World War II: King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of Marshal Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies
1944 Freckleton Air Disaster – A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people
1945 Soviet–Japanese War – Joseph Stalin ordered conveying a Japanese army prisoner of war to the Soviet Union. (Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union)
1946 Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Länder (states) of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein
1948 World Council of Churches is formed