Died on August 24

842 Emperor Saga the 52nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Saga's reign spanned the years from 809 through 823
1042 Michael V Kalaphates Byzantine emperor for four months in 1041–1042, the nephew and successor of Michael IV and the adoptive son of his wife, the Empress Zoe. He was popularly called "the Caulker" in accordance with his father's original occupation
1101 Su Shi a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty. A major personality of the Song era, Su was an important figure in Song Dynasty politics, aligning himself with Sima Guang and others, against the New Policy party lead by Wang Anshi. Su Shi was famed as an essayist, and his prose writings lucidly contribute to the understanding of topics such as 11th-century Chinese travel literature or detailed information on the contemporary Chinese iron industry. His poetry has a long history of popularity and influence in China, Japan, and other areas in the near vicinity and is well known in the English speaking parts of the world through the translations by Arthur Waley, among others. In terms of the arts, Su Shi has some claim to being "the pre-eminent personality of the eleventh century." He is credited with creating dongpo pork, a prominent dish in Hangzhou cuisine
1103 Magnus Barefoot King of Norway from 1093 until his death in 1103. His reign was marked by aggressive military campaigns and conquest, particularly in the Norse-dominated parts of the British Isles, and he extended his rule to the Kingdom of the Isles and Dublin
1217 Eustace the Monk a mercenary and pirate, in the tradition of medieval outlaws. The birthplace of Eustace was not far from Boulogne. A 1243 document mentions a Guillaume le Moine, seigneur de Course, which indicates that the family lived in that vicinity
1290 Zavis of Falkenstein Czech nobleman. After the Czech king Ottokar II of Bohemia was killed in battle in 1278, a Brandenburg regent was installed. In 1284, when the regent was expelled Zavis of Falkenstein took his place at the head of local nobles along with bishop Tobias Bechun of Prague. He became second husband of Ottokar II's widow, Kunigunda of Slavonia in Prague in 1285. Kunigunda died only a few months later and Záviš married again to the Hungarian princess Elisabeth. He was executed on behalf of the King, Rudolph I of Germany, on 24 August 1290
1313 Henry VII Holy Roman Emperor the King of Germany from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. During his brief career he reinvigorated the imperial cause in Italy, which was racked with the partisan struggles between the divided Guelf and Ghibelline factions, and inspired the praise of Dino Compagni and Dante Alighieri; however, his premature death undid his life's work
1371 Edward Duke of Guelders the youngest son of Rainald II of Guelders and his second wife, Eleanor of Woodstock, daughter of Edward II of England.
1507 Cecily of York an English Princess and the third, but eventual second surviving, daughter of Edward IV, King of England and his queen consort, née Lady Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg.
1516 Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans. One of the last of the Burji dynasty, he reigned from 1501 to 1516. On the disappearance of Sultan Al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Tuman bay I, it was not till after some days that the choice of the Emirs and Mamluks fell upon Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri. As a Circassian slave, he had served Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Qaitbay, was over forty before he was raised to independence as Emir of ten, and then, was rapidly promoted to command of Tarsus, Aleppo and Malatia, he became Emir of a thousand, Chamberlain of the Court, and chief Vizier. At first he declined the throne, but being pressed by the Emirs, who swore faithful service, he at last consented. He was now 60 years of age; but, still firm and vigorous, soon showed the Emirs that he was not to be overruled by any of them
1540 Parmigianino an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma. His work is characterized by elongation of form and includes Vision of Saint Jerome and the Madonna with the Long Neck
1542 Gasparo Contarini an Italian diplomat, cardinal and Bishop of Belluno. He was one of the first proponents of the dialogue with Protestants, after the Reformation
1572 Gaspard II de Coligny a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion.
1572 Charles de Téligny a French soldier and diplomat.
1595 Thomas Digges an English mathematician and astronomer. He was the first to expound the Copernican system in English but discarded the notion of a fixed shell of immoveable stars to postulate infinitely many stars at varying distances; he was also first to postulate the "dark night sky paradox"
1617 Rose of Lima Saint Rose of Lima, T.O.S.D. was a Spanish colonist in Lima, Peru, who became known for both her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy of the city through her own private efforts. A lay member of the Dominican Order, she was the first person born in the Americas to be canonized by the Catholic Church
1635 Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg Imperial Count of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg and Bavarian Field-marshal, and an important military leader in the Thirty Years' War.
1647 Nicholas Stone an English sculptor and architect. In 1619 he was appointed master-mason to James I, and in 1626 to Charles I
1656 Aegidius Gelenius one of the most respected Cologne historians of his time. He had also at his disposal some Roman age sources that are not in existence today
1670 William Neile an English mathematician and founder member of the Royal Society. His major mathematical work, the rectification of the semicubical parabola, was carried out when he was aged nineteen, and was published by John Wallis. By carrying out the determination of arc lengths on a curve given algebraically, in other words by extending to algebraic curves generally with Cartesian geometry a basic concept from differential geometry, it represented a major advance in what would become infinitesimal calculus. His name also appears as Neil
1679 Jean François Paul de Gondi a French churchman, writer of memoirs, and agitator in the Fronde.
1680 Ferdinand Bol a Dutch artist, etcher, and draftsman. Although his surviving work is rare, it displays Rembrandt's influence; like his master, Bol favored historical subjects, portraits, numerous self-portraits, and single figures in exotic finery
1680 Thomas Blood an Anglo-Irish officer and self-styled colonel best known for his attempt to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671. Described in an American source as a "noted bravo and desperado", he was known for his attempt to kidnap, and later, to kill his enemy, the Duke of Ormonde. He had switched allegiances from Royalist to Roundhead during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and despite his subsequent notoriety received a Royal free pardon and found favour at the court of King Charles II
1683 Matsudaira Tadateru a daimyo during the Edo period of Japan. He was the sixth son of Tokugawa Ieyasu. He was born in Edo Castle during the year of the dragon , and as a child his name was Tatsuchiyo. His mother was Lady Chaa , a concubine of Ieyasu. Ieyasu sent the boy to live with a vassal, Minagawa Hiroteru, daimyo of the Minagawa Domain in Shimotsuke Province
1683 John Owen (theologian) an English Nonconformist church leader, theologian, and academic administrator at the University of Oxford.
1699 Lucrezia Barberini an Italian noblewoman and, by marriage, Duchess of Modena. Born into the Barberini family, she was the last wife of Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena
1709 Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a German princess and a member of the House of Wettin in the Ernestine branch of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. By marriage she was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt and Landgravine-Regent from 1678 to 1688
1739 Takebe Kenko a Japanese mathematician in the Edo period.
1745 Oleksa Dovbush a famous Ukrainian outlaw, leader of opryshky, who became a folk hero, often compared to Robin Hood.
1759 Ewald Christian von Kleist a German poet and officer.
1770 Thomas Chatterton an English poet and forger of pseudo-medieval poetry. He committed suicide, dying of arsenic poisoning. His works and death were much discussed posthumously and had an influence on the Romantic movement
1773 George Lyttelton 1st Baron Lyttelton a British statesman and patron of the arts.
1777 Antun Kanižlić a Croatian Jesuit and poet.
1779 Cosmas of Aetolia a monk in the Greek Orthodox Church and an important figure in the Greek Enlightenment.
1798 Thomas Alcock (clergyman) a clergyman in the Church of England, a pluralist and an author.
1806 Alexandros Soutzos a Phanariote Greek who ruled as Prince of Moldavia July 10, 1801 – October 1, 1802 and Prince of Wallachia. Born in Istanbul, he had earlier been a Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire
1807 Jacques-Christophe Valmont de Bomare a French botanist and naturalist. He wrote an influential encyclopedia of natural history in the 1760s: Dictionnaire raisonné universel d’histoire naturelle
1817 Nancy Storace an English operatic soprano. The role of Susanna in Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro was written for and first performed by her
1818 James Carr (Massachusetts politician) son of U.S. Congressman Francis Carr, was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Maine, then a District of Massachusetts
1821 John William Polidori an English writer and physician. He is known for his associations with the Romantic movement and credited by some as the creator of the vampire genre of fantasy fiction. His most successful work was the 1819 short story, The Vampyre, the first published modern vampire story. Although originally and erroneously accredited to Lord Byron, both Byron and Polidori affirmed that the story is Polidori's
1828 Georg Friedrich Sartorius a German research historian, economist and professor at Göttingen University.
1832 Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics". In his only publication, the 1824 monograph Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, Carnot gave the first successful theory of the maximum efficiency of heat engines. Carnot's work attracted little attention during his lifetime, but it was later used by Rudolf Clausius and Lord Kelvin to formalize the second law of thermodynamics and define the concept of entropy
1833 Adrian Hardy Haworth an English entomologist, botanist and carcinologist.
1838 Ferenc Kölcsey a Hungarian poet, literary critic, orator, and politician, noted for his support of the liberal current inside the Habsburg Empire. He wrote the national anthem of Hungary in 1823
1841 Theodore Hook an English man of letters and composer, and briefly a civil servant in Mauritius. He is best known for his practical jokes, particularly the Berners Street Hoax in 1810
1841 John Ordronaux (privateer) one of the most successful privateers of the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the war he commanded two ships, Marengo, then Prince de Neufchatel. With these he captured or destroyed about thirty British merchant ships, outran about seventeen British warships and brought back goods to the USA worth between $250,000 and $300,000
1841 Friedrich Curschmann a German song composer and singer.
1844 John Keane 1st Baron Keane an Irish soldier in the British Army.
1844 Aaron Chorin a Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of early religious reform. He favored the use of the organ and of prayers in the vernacular, and was instrumental in founding schools along modern lines. Chorin was thus regarded as a leader of the newer Judaism. He also interested himself in public affairs—he took an active part in the efforts for Jewish emancipation, and was very influential with the state authorities
1846 Adam Johann von Krusenstern a Baltic German admiral and explorer, who led the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe.