Born on August 25

1316 John of Eltham Earl of Cornwall the second son of king Edward II of England and his queen Isabella of France. He was heir to the English throne from the date of the abdication of his father to the birth of his nephew Edward, the Black Prince
1467 Francisco Fernández de la Cueva 2nd Duke of Alburquerque a Spanish nobleman.
1509 Ippolito II d'Este an Italian cardinal and statesman. He was a member of the House of Este, and nephew of the other Ippolito d'Este, also a cardinal. He is perhaps best known for his despoliation of the then 1,400-year-old Hadrian's Villa, built by the Roman emperor Hadrian, removing marbles and statues from it to decorate his own villa, the Villa d'Este
1530 Ivan the Terrible the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 4,046,856 km2. Ivan managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russians
1540 Lady Catherine Grey the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey. A granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, she was a potential successor to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but incurred Elizabeth's wrath by her secret marriage to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Following her arrest when the queen was informed of her clandestine marriage, she lived in captivity until her death, having borne two sons in the Tower of London
1561 Philippe van Lansberge a Dutch Calvinist Minister, astronomer and Mathematician. His name is sometimes written Lansberg, and his first name is sometimes given as Philip or Johannes Philippus. He published under the Latin name Philippus Lansbergius
1573 Elizabeth of Denmark Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel duchess consort of Brunswick-Lüneburg as married to Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was regent of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1616-1622
1588 Elizabeth Poole an English settler in Plymouth Colony who founded the town of Taunton, Massachusetts. She was the first woman known to have founded a town in the Americas. Poole was a well-born woman from Shute in East Devon, near Axminster. She was the daughter of Sir William Pole, who was knighted by James I in 1601, and Mary Peryam, the daughter of Sir William Peryam, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Until 2009, her family's descendants, the Pole-Carews, lived in the Devonshire house she was born in, Shute Barton a National Trust property which is open to the public on four weekends during the year
1609 Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato an Italian Baroque painter. He is often referred to only by the town of his birthplace , as was customary in his time, and for example seen with da Vinci and Caravaggio
1624 François de la Chaise a French Jesuit priest, the father confessor of King Louis XIV of France.
1636 Louis Victor de Rochechouart de Mortemart a French nobleman and member of the ancient House of Rochechouart. His father Gabriel de Rochechouart de Mortemart was a childhood friend of Louis XIII. His older sister was Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart, the celebrated beauty of the era; another sister was Madame de Montespan herself the mistress of Louis XIV. He was Général des galères and Marshal of France, Maréchal de Vivonne
1662 John Leverett the Younger an early American lawyer, politician, educator, and President of Harvard College.
1694 Theodore of Corsica a German adventurer who was briefly King of Corsica. Theodore is the subject of an opera by Paisiello, Il Re Teodoro in Venezia and one of the six kings in Venice
1698 Baal Shem Tov a Jewish mystical rabbi. He is considered to be the founder of Hasidic Judaism
1699 Charles Étienne Louis Camus a French mathematician and mechanician who was born at Crécy-en-Brie, near Meaux.
1707 Louis I of Spain King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months
1719 Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo a French painter of allegorical scenes and portraits.
1724 George Stubbs an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses.
1730 Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony a German prince and member of the House of Wettin.
1737 Jacek Małachowski a Polish nobleman, politician and administrator.
1741 Karl Friedrich Bahrdt considered by some as one of the most immoral characters in German learning.
1744 Johann Gottfried Herder a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism
1752 Karl Mack von Leiberich an Austrian soldier. He is best remembered as the commander of the Austrian forces that capitulated to Napoleon's Grande Armée in the Battle of Ulm in 1805. Mack makes a brief appearance as a character in book two of Tolstoy's War and Peace
1758 Franz Teyber an Austrian Kapellmeister, organist and composer of orchestral and chamber music. Studying at Wagenseil, from 1786 he was director of the Schikaneder theatre company and from 1801 a composer and musical director of the Theater an der Wien. His sisters Elisabeth and Therese were opera singers, and his brother Anton worked as a composer to the Dresden opera and Vienna court
1765 Georg Friedrich Sartorius a German research historian, economist and professor at Göttingen University.
1767 Louis Antoine de Saint-Just a military and political leader during the French Revolution. The youngest of the deputies elected to the National Convention in 1792, Saint-Just rose quickly in their ranks and became a major leader of the government of the French First Republic. He spearheaded the movement to execute King Louis XVI and later drafted the radical French Constitution of 1793
1771 Caroline of Hesse-Homburg the daughter of Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and his wife, Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt. She married in 1791 to Louis Frederick II, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. They had five children together. Caroline died on 20 June 1854
1776 Thomas Bladen Capel an officer in the British Royal Navy whose distinguished service in the French Revolutionary War, the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 earned him rapid promotion and great acclaim both in and out of the Navy. He was also a great friend of Admiral Nelson and can be considered a full member of Nelson's "band of brothers"
1786 Sergey Uvarov a Russian classical scholar best remembered as an influential imperial statesman under Nicholas I of Russia.
1786 Ludwig I of Bavaria king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
1789 John Miers (botanist) a British botanist and engineer, best known for his work on the flora of Chile and Argentina.
1793 Lajos Aulich the third Minister of War of Hungary.
1793 Martin Rathke a German embryologist and anatomist. Along with Karl Ernst von Baer and Christian Heinrich Pander, he is recognized as one of the founders of modern embryology. He was the father of chemist Bernhard Rathke
1794 Christian Friedrich Freyer a German entomologist mainly interested in Lepidoptera.
1795 Luis José de Orbegoso President of Peru from 1833 to 1835. This was a time of profound social instability and continuing civil war which led his government to coexist with that of Pedro Pablo Bermúdez, and later with Felipe Santiago Salaverry
1796 James Lick an American carpenter, piano builder, land baron, and patron of the sciences. At the time of his death, he was the wealthiest man in California, and left the majority of his estate to social and scientific causes
1797 Henrik Hertz a Danish poet.
1798 Joseph von Auffenberg a German dramatist.
1800 Karl Hase August von Hase , German Protestant theologian and church historian.
1802 Nikolaus Lenau the nom de plume of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch Edler von Strehlenau , a German-language Austrian poet.
1803 Luís Alves de Lima e Silva Duke of Caxias an army officer, politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Like his father and uncles, Caxias pursued a military career. In 1823 he fought as a young officer in the Brazilian War for Independence against Portugal, then spent three years in Brazil's southernmost province, Cisplatina, as the government unsuccessfully resisted that province's secession in the Cisplatine War. Though his own father and uncles renounced Emperor Dom Pedro I during the protests of 1831, Caxias remained loyal. Pedro I abdicated in favor of his young son Dom Pedro II, whom Caxias instructed in swordsmanship and horsemanship and eventually befriended
1811 August Gottfried Ritter a German romantic composer and organist.
1812 Nikolay Zinin a Russian organic chemist.
1815 Ferdinando Petruccelli della Gattina an Italian journalist, patriot and politician.
1817 Marie-Eugénie de Jésus Saint Marie-Eugénie de Jésus. R.A., born Anne-Eugénie Milleret de Brou, was a Catholic religious sister who founded the religious congregation of the Religious of the Assumption in 1839
1817 Alfred Francis Russell served as the tenth President of Liberia from 1883 to 1884. He immigrated to Liberia in 1833 with his mother, Amelie "Milly" Crawford, his cousin, Lucretia Russell and her four children Cynthia, Gilbert, George, and Henry. He served as a Methodist missionary and later owned a large coffee and sugarcane farm. Russell remained in the ministry and served in the Senate as well. He was elected vice-president under Anthony William Gardiner in 1881, becoming President of Liberia on the latter's resignation due to poor health
1818 Thomas Francis Wade a British diplomat and Sinologist who produced the first Chinese textbook in English in 1867 that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization system for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892.
1819 Allan Pinkerton a Scottish American detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton National Detective Agency.
1822 Gardiner Greene Hubbard a U.S. lawyer, financier, and philanthropist.
1822 John Newton (engineer) a career engineer officer in the United States Army, a Union general in the American Civil War, and Chief of the Corps of Engineers.