Died on August 25

79 Pliny the Elder a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.
274 Empress Yang Yan an empress of Jin Dynasty. She was the first wife of Emperor Wu
359 Junius Bassus an ancient Roman politician. The son of the praetorian prefect Junius Annius Bassus, he was vir clarissimus and vicarius of Rome as well as praefectus urbi from 25 March to 25 August 359
383 Gratian Roman emperor from 375 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, during his youth Gratian accompanied his father on several campaigns along the Rhine and Danube frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratian's brother Valentinian II was declared emperor by his father's soldiers. In 378, Gratian's generals won a decisive victory over the Lentienses, a branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria. Gratian subsequently led a campaign across the Rhine, the last emperor to do so, and attacked the Lentienses, forcing the tribe to surrender. That same year, his uncle Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths – making Gratian essentially ruler of the entire Roman Empire. He favoured Christianity over traditional Roman religion, refusing the divine attributes of the Emperors and removing the Altar of Victory from the Roman Senate
1192 Hugh III Duke of Burgundy duke of Burgundy between 1162 and 1192. Hugh was the eldest son of duke Odo II and Marie of Champagne, daughter of Theobald and Mathilda of Carinthia
1270 Hugh XII of Lusignan de Lusignan, Hugh VII of La Marche or Hugh III of Angoulême or Hugues XII & VII & III de Lusignan. He succeeded his father Hugh XI as seigneur of Lusignan, Couhe, and Peyrat, Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême in 1250
1270 Alphonso of Brienne the son of John of Brienne and Berengaria of León, born in Acre. He was the Grand Butler of France in 1258
1270 Louis IX of France a Capetian King of France who reigned from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached majority. During Louis's minority, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian crusade which had started 20 years earlier
1271 Joan Countess of Toulouse Countess of Toulouse from 1249 until her death. She was the only child of Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse by his first wife Sancha, daughter of King Alfonso II of Aragon
1282 Thomas de Cantilupe an English saint and prelate.
1298 Albert II Duke of Saxony a son of Duke Albert I of Saxony and his third wife Helen of Brunswick and Lunenburg, a daughter of Otto the Child. He supported Rudolph I of Germany at his election as Roman king and became his son-in-law. After the death of their father Albert I in 1260 Albert II jointly ruled the Duchy of Saxony with his elder brother John I, and thereafter with the latter's sons
1303 Ninshō a Japanese Shingon Risshu priest during the Kamakura period. His was instrumental in reviving Ritsu Buddhism during this period, as well as establishing facilities to care for invalids. He was criticized by his contemporary Nichiren
1333 Muhammed IV Sultan of Granada the Nasrid ruler of the Moorish Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula from 1325 to 1333. He was the son of Ismail I, Sultan of Granada and the sixth Nasrid ruler of Granada in Iberia. He succeeded his father at ten years old
1368 Orcagna an Italian painter, sculptor, and architect active in Florence.
1482 Margaret of Anjou the wife of King Henry VI of England. As such, she was Queen of England from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine, into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René I of Naples and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine
1497 Johann von Tiefen the 35th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1489 to 1497.
1551 Christoph Schappeler a German religious figure, the preacher at Martin's in Memmingen during the early 16th century, during the Protestant Reformation and the German Peasants' War. He tended to side with the poor, causing the senate to regulate his sermons in 1516. However, by 1521 the climate had changed such that the senate was giving him support. When he was excommunicated in 1524, the senate refused to follow the bishop's order to have him banished
1554 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk a prominent Tudor politician. He was an uncle of two of the wives of Henry VIII: Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, and played a major role in the machinations behind these marriages. After falling from favour in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower, avoiding execution when the King died. He was released on the accession of Queen Mary He aided Mary in securing her throne, setting the stage for alienation between his Catholic family and the Protestant royal line that would be continued by Queen Elizabeth I
1592 William IV Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel the first Landgrave of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. He was the founder of the oldest line, which survives to this day
1603 Jan Zborowski a Polish Court Hetman of the Crown, royal secretaty of Zygmunt II August and Lord Kasztelan of Gniezno.
1603 Ahmad al-Mansur Sultan of the Saadi dynasty from 1578 to his death in 1603, the sixth and most famous of all rulers of the Saadis. Ahmad al-Mansur was an important figure in both Europe and Africa in the sixteenth century, his powerful army and strategic location made him an important power player in the late Renaissance period
1613 David Gans a Jewish chronicler, mathematician, historian, astronomer and astrologer. He is the author of "Tzemach David"
1632 Thomas Dekker (writer) an English Elizabethan dramatist and pamphleteer, a versatile and prolific writer whose career spanned several decades and brought him into contact with many of the period's most famous dramatists.
1648 Joseph Calasanz Sch.P. also known as Joseph Calasanctius and Josephus a Matre Dei, was a Spanish Catholic priest, educator and the founder of the Pious Schools, providing free education to the sons of the poor, and the Religious Order that ran them, commonly known as the Piarists. He is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church
1685 Francisco Herrera the Younger a Spanish painter and architect.
1688 Henry Morgan a Welsh privateer, pirate and admiral of the English navy who made a name for himself during activities in the Caribbean, primarily raiding Spanish settlements. He earned a reputation as one of the most notorious and successful privateers in history, and one of the most ruthless among those active along the Spanish Main
1699 Christian V of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699.
1711 Edward Villiers 1st Earl of Jersey a British aristocrat from the Villiers family. He was created Baron Villiers and Viscount Villiers in 1691 and Earl of Jersey in 1697
1742 Carlos Seixas a Portuguese composer, the son of the cathedral organist, Francisco Vaz and Marcelina Nunes.
1774 Niccolò Jommelli a Neapolitan composer. He was born in Aversa and died in Naples. Along with other composers mainly in the Holy Roman Empire and France, he made important changes to opera and reduced the importance of star singers
1776 David Hume a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and scepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the Scottish Enlightenment, and in the history of Western philosophy. He is the philosopher who is "widely regarded as the greatest who has ever written in the English language." Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist
1776 Germain-François Poullain de Saint-Foix a French writer and playwright.
1782 Marianna Auenbrugger an Austrian pianist and composer.
1788 Tanuma Okitsugu a rōjū of the Tokugawa shogunate who introduced monetary reform. He was also a daimyo, and ruled the Sagara han. He used the title Tonomo-no-kami
1791 Pietro Domenico Paradisi an Italian composer, harpsichordist and harpsichord teacher, most prominently known for a composition popularly entitled "Toccata in A".
1794 Leopold August Abel a German violinist and composer. He was born in Köthen in 1717. He was the elder brother of Karl Friedrich Abel, and the grandfather of Johann Leopold Abel. August Abel studied violin under Benda. He played in the orchestra of the theatre at Brunswick, and was successively conductor of the court band to the Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen , the Margrave of Schwedt , and the Duke of Schwerin. He composed a sinfonia a 8 voci in 1766, and some of his violin studies and other compositions are in the possession of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde at Vienna. However, he never rose to the reputation of his brother. He died at Ludwigslust on August 25, 1794
1794 Florimond Claude Comte de Mercy-Argenteau an Austrian diplomat.
1797 Thomas Chittenden an important figure in the founding of Vermont, as the President of the Vermont Republic and the first Governor of the state of Vermont.
1797 Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai a French novelist, playwright, journalist, politician, and diplomat.
1798 Christian August Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont a general in the Austrian service, and last commander and Field Marshal of the Portuguese land army.
1798 Mikiel'Ang Grima a Maltese surgeon during the times of the Knights of Malta. He was particularly adept at traumatic surgery. Grima was considered to be one of the best surgeons of his time, as he was able to open bladders and remove stones in only two and a half minutes
1803 Claude Bigot de Sainte-Croix French Foreign Minister.
1807 Christian Jakob Kraus a German comparative and historical linguist.
1807 Sophie Ristaud Cottin a French writer whose novels were popular in the 19th century, and were translated into several different languages.
1807 Franciszek Dionizy Kniaźnin considered to be one of the most distinguished Polish poets of the Polish sentimentalism in the Enlightenment period.
1807 Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis a French jurist and politician in time of the French Revolution and the First Empire. His son, Joseph Marie Portalis was a diplomat and statesman
1819 James Watt a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
1822 William Herschel a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel. Born in the Electorate of Hanover, Herschel followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, before migrating to Great Britain at the age of nineteen
1836 William Elford Leach an English zoologist and marine biologist.
1836 Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland a German physician. He is famous as the most eminent practical physician of his time in Germany and as the author of numerous works displaying extensive reading and a cultivated critical faculty