Born on August 26

787 Arechis II of Benevento Duke of Benevento, in southern Italy, from 758 until his death. While he sought to expand Benevento's influence into areas of Italy still controlled by the Byzantine Empire, he also had to resist attacks by Charlemagne, who was building a Frankish empire and had conquered northern Italy
1031 Malcolm III of Scotland King of Scots. He was the eldest son of King Duncan Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth
1462 Catherine Zaccaria the daughter of the last Prince of Achaea, Centurione II Zaccaria. In September 1429 she was betrothed to the Byzantine Despot of the Morea Thomas Palaiologos, and married him in January 1430 at Mystras
1469 Ferdinand II of Naples King of Naples from 1495 to 1496. He was the son and successor of Alphonso II, and heir of the Brienne claim to kingdom of Jerusalem
1549 Adrian of Ondrusov a Russian Orthodox monk and saint, venerated as a Wonderworker.
1596 Frederick V Elector Palatine often nicknamed the Winter King.
1620 Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ a Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Cammin and official in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia.
1652 Tsarevna Marfa Alekseyevna of Russia a Russian Princess, daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half sister of Tsar Peter the Great. She participated in the rebellion of her sister Sophia against Tsar Peter in 1698 and was therefore imprisoned in a convent. She is an orthodox saint
1676 Robert Walpole generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Although the exact dates of his dominance are a matter of scholarly debate, 1721–1742 are often used. He dominated the Walpole–Townshend Ministry and the Ministry and holds the record as the longest serving Prime Minister in British history. Critics called his system the "Robinocracy." Speck says that Walpole's uninterrupted run of 20 years as Prime Minister "is rightly regarded as one of the major feats of British political history.... Explanations are usually offered in terms of his expert handling of the political system after 1720, his unique blending of the surviving powers of the crown with the increasing influence of the Commons
1687 Henry Carey (writer) an English poet, dramatist and song-writer. He is remembered as an anti-Walpolean satirist and also as a patriot. Several of his melodies continue to be sung today, and he was widely praised in the generation after his death. Because he worked in anonymity, selling his own compositions to others to pass off as their own, contemporary scholarship can only be certain of some of his poetry, and a great deal of the music he composed was written for theatrical incidental music. However, under his own name and hand, he was a prolific song writer and balladeer, and he wrote the lyrics for almost all of these songs. Further, he wrote numerous operas and plays. His life is illustrative of the professional author in the early 18th century. Without inheritance or title or governmental position, he wrote for all of the remunerative venues, and yet he also kept his own political point of view and was able to score significant points against the ministry of the day. Further, he was one of the leading lights of the new "Patriotic" movement in drama
1688 Egidio Forcellini born at Fener in the district of Treviso and belonged to a very poor family.
1694 Elisha Williams a Congregational minister, legislator, miltia soldier, jurist, and rector of Yale College from 1726 to 1739.
1695 Marie-Anne-Catherine Quinault a French singer and composer. Her father was the actor Jean Quinault , and her brother was Jean-Baptiste Maurice Quinault, a singer, composer, and actor. She made her debut at the Paris Opera in 1709 in Jean-Baptiste Lully's Bellérophon. She remained at the opera until 1713. In 1714 she began singing at the Comédie-Française, where she remained until 1722. Quinault composed motets for the Royal Chapel at the Palace of Versailles. For one of these motets she was awarded the first Order of Saint Michael given to a woman
1708 Pierre-Joseph Bernard a French military man and salon poet with the reputation of a rake, the author of several libretti for Rameau. Mme de Pompadour arranged to have him appointed a royal librarian, at the château de Choisy, where she had a little pavilion built for him
1712 Tadeusz Franciszek Ogiński a szlachcic from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1728 Johann Heinrich Lambert a Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher and astronomer. He is best known for proving the Irrationality of π
1736 Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle a French mineralogist, considered one of the creators of modern crystallography.
1740 Montgolfier brothers Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier were the inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. The brothers succeeded in launching the first manned ascent, carrying Étienne into the sky. Later, in December 1783, in recognition of their achievement, their father Pierre was elevated to the nobility and the hereditary appellation of de Montgolfier by King Louis XVI of France
1743 Antoine Lavoisier a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century Chemical Revolution and a large influence on both the histories of chemistry and biology. He is widely considered to be the "Father of Modern Chemistry."
1753 Princess Joséphine of Lorraine a princess of the House of Lorraine and by marriage the Princess of Carignan. She was the paternal grandmother of King Charles Albert of Sardinia, from whom the modern royal house of Italy descends
1760 Claude Antoine Gabriel duc de Choiseul-Stainville a French soldier and émigré Royalist.
1766 Pierre Hugues Victoire Merle a French general during the First French Empire of Napoleon. He joined the French army as a private in 1781 but after the French Revolution, the pace of promotion quickened. He was appointed a general officer in 1794 for distinguishing himself during the War of the Pyrenees. After leading a brigade at Austerlitz in December 1805, he was promoted again. His division was in the first wave of the 1808 invasion of Spain, which precipitated the Peninsular War. In Spain, he led his division at Medina de Rioseco, Corunna, First and Second Porto, Bussaco, Sabugal, and Fuentes de Onoro. After being sent home from Spain, Merle was assigned to lead a division in the French invasion of Russia. He led his troops at First and Second Polotsk. He embraced the Bourbon cause in 1814, retired from the army in 1816, and died at Marseilles in 1830. Merle is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe on Column 35
1775 William Joseph Behr German publicist and writer.
1787 Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov a Finnish-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman. He was made adjutant general in 1817 and admiral in 1833
1788 Aloys Schmitt a German composer, pianist and music teacher. He was born in Erlenbach am Main. In 1824 he was appointed court composer in Munich. He received an honorary doctorate from the University of Giessen
1789 Abbas Mirza a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali Shah. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life
1792 Manuel Oribe the 2nd Constitutional president of Uruguay.
1809 Constantin von Alvensleben a Prussian general.
1812 Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg a Duke of the House of Oldenburg. He was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War His great-great grandson, Nicholas Romanov, is the current President of the Romanov Family Association
1813 Nicaise de Keyser a Belgian painter of mainly history paintings and portraits who was one of the key figures in the Belgian Romantic-historical school of painting.
1815 Bernard Jauréguiberry a French admiral and statesman.
1819 Albert Prince Consort the husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1819 John McKinlay a grazier and explorer of Australia and leader of one of the search parties for the Burke and Wills expedition. The town of McKinlay in north western Queensland was named for him
1819 Louis Adolphe Cochery a French politician and journalist.
1819 Hinrich Johannes Rink a Danish geologist, one of the pioneers of glaciology, and the first accurate describer of the inland ice of Greenland. Rink, who first came to Greenland in 1848, spent 16 winters and 22 summers in the Arctic region, and became notable for Greenland's development. Becoming a Greenlandic scholar and administrator, he served as Royal Inspector of South Greenland and went on to became Director of the Royal Greenland Trading Department. With "Forstanderskaber", Rink introduced the first steps towards Greelandic home rule
1820 James Harlan (senator) an attorney and politician, a member of the United States Senate , and a U.S. Cabinet Secretary at the United States Department of Interior under President Andrew Johnson
1823 Marcellin Desboutin a French painter, printmaker and writer.
1826 Princess Alexandra of Bavaria a member of the House of Wittelsbach and devoted her life to literature.
1828 Otto Henne am Rhyn a Swiss writer.
1832 Ludwik Narbutt a Polish noble and a notable military commander during the January Uprising. Son of Teodor Narbutt, he led a large unit of Polish insurgents in the region of the town of Lida, from the start of the uprising till his death in combat on 5 May 1863
1833 Henry Fawcett a blind British academic, statesman and economist.
1835 Robert Biddulph (British Army officer) Quartermaster-General to the Forces.
1835 José María Martín de Herrera y de la Iglesia a long-serving cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church in the early years of the twentieth century. Unusually, he served as archbishop of dioceses in more than one different country, being both archbishop of Santiago de Cuba and of Santiago de Compostela during his career in the Church
1840 Hsu Yun a renowned Chinese-born Chan Buddhist master and one of the most influential Buddhist teachers of the 19th and 20th centuries. He is often noted for his unusually long lifespan, having allegedly lived to age 119
1842 Heinrich Quincke a German internist and surgeon. His main contribution to internal medicine was the introduction of the lumbar puncture for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. After 1874, his main area of research was pulmonary medicine
1845 Mary Ann Nichols one of the Whitechapel murder victims. Her death has been attributed to the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, who is believed to have killed and mutilated five women in the Whitechapel area of London from late August to early November 1888
1848 Édouard Joseph Dantan a French painter in the classical tradition. He was widely recognized in his day, although he was subsequently eclipsed by painters with more modern styles
1849 Otto Küstner a German gynecologist.
1854 Arnold Fothergill an English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket for Somerset and the Marylebone Cricket Club in a career which spanned from 1870 until 1892. A left-arm fast-medium pace bowler, he appeared for England in two Test matches in 1889
1859 James Willard Schultz a noted author, explorer, Glacier National Park guide, fur trader and historian of the Blackfoot Indians. While operating a fur trading post at Carroll, Montana 47°34′25″N 108°22′24″W / 47.57361°N 108.37333°W / 47.57361; -108.37333 and living amongst the Pikuni tribe during the period 1880-82, he was given the name "Apikuni" by the Pikuni chief, Running Crane. Apikuni in Blackfoot means Spotted Robe. Schultz is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfoot life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park