Died on August 26

887 Emperor Kōkō the 58th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1278 Ottokar II of Bohemia a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278. He also held the titles of a Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola from 1269
1346 John of Bohemia the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland. He was the eldest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII and his wife Margaret of Brabant. He is well known for having died while fighting in the Battle of Crécy at age 50, after having been blind for a decade
1346 Louis I Count of Flanders Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel.
1346 Charles II Count of Alençon the second son of Charles of Valois and his first wife Margaret, Countess of Anjou, and brother of Philip VI of France. He was Count of Alençon and Count of Perche , as well as Count of Chartres and Count of Joigny
1346 Rudolph Duke of Lorraine the Duke of Lorraine from 1329 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick IV and Elisabeth, daughter of Albert I of Germany, a Habsburg, whence his name. Though he was but nine years of age when his father died and he succeeded to the duchy under the regency of his mother , he was a warrior prince, taking part in four separate wars in Lorraine, France, Brittany, and Iberia. He was killed at the Battle of Crécy
1349 Thomas Bradwardine an English cleric, scholar, mathematician, physicist, courtier and, very briefly, Archbishop of Canterbury. As a celebrated scholastic philosopher and doctor of theology, he is often called Doctor Profundus
1399 Mikhail II of Tver Grand Prince of Tver and briefly held the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. He was one of only two Tver princes after 1317 to hold the grand princely title, which was almost the exclusive purview of the Muscovite princes
1422 Taddeo di Bartolo an Italian painter of the Sienese School during the early Renaissance. He is among the artists profiled in Vasari's Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori. Vasari claims he is the uncle of Domenico di Bartolo
1445 Alexander I of Georgia king of Georgia from 1412 to 1442. Despite his efforts to restore the country from the ruins left by the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur's invasions, Georgia never recovered and faced the inevitable fragmentation that was followed by a long period of stagnation. In 1442, he abdicated the throne and retired to a monastery
1474 James III of Cyprus the only and posthumous child by marriage of James II of Cyprus and Catherine Cornaro and King of Cyprus from birth. He died in mysterious circumstances as an infant, leaving his mother as the last Queen of Cyprus. His death paved the way for Venice to gain control of Cyprus
1486 Ernest Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1464 to 1486.
1506 Sesshū Tōyō the most prominent Japanese master of ink and wash painting from the middle Muromachi period. He was born into the samurai Oda family , then brought up and educated to become a Rinzai Zen Buddhist priest. However, early in life he displayed a talent for visual arts, and eventually became one of the greatest Japanese artists of his time, widely revered throughout Japan and China
1551 Margaret Leijonhufvud Queen of Sweden from 1536 to 1551 as the wife of King Gustav She belonged to the early Leijonhufvud clan of Swedish nobility.
1572 Petrus Ramus an influential French humanist, logician, and educational reformer. A Protestant convert, he was killed during the Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1595 António Prior of Crato a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal, claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 dynastic crisis. According to some historians, he was King of Portugal as António I of Portugal during 33 days in 1580. After the crowning of Philip II of Spain as King of Portugal, he claimed the throne until 1583. He was a disciple of Bartholomew of Braga
1624 Fukushima Masanori a Japanese daimyo of the late Sengoku Period to early Edo Period who served as lord of the Hiroshima Domain. A retainer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he fought in the battle of Shizugatake in 1583, and soon became known as one of Seven Spears of Shizugatake which also included Katō Kiyomasa and others
1638 Bayram Pasha an Ottoman grand vizier from 1637 to 1638 and the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1626 to 1628.
1666 Frans Hals a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem, though he was born in the Southern Netherlands. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture
1706 Michael Willmann a German painter. The Baroque artist became known as the "Silesian Rembrandt"
1712 Sebastian Anton Scherer a German composer and organist of the Baroque era.
1714 Edward Fowler an English churchman, Bishop of Gloucester from 1691 until his death.
1723 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology
1728 William Ernest Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar.
1728 Anne Marie d'Orléans the first Queen consort of Sardinia and the maternal grandmother of Louis XV of France. She is also an important figure in British history
1741 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (governor) the governor of the Austrian Netherlands between 1725 and 1741.
1785 George Germain 1st Viscount Sackville a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American War of Independence.
1791 José Iglesias de la Casa a Spanish priest and poet. He pursued his studies at the University of Salamanca, and in 1783 took Holy orders at Madrid. During his lifetime he published two minor poems, "La niñez Laureada" , and "La Teclogia". Before producing these he had composed his really important poems, which are chiefly satirical and epigrammatical in their nature. In fact, as a satirist he is to be ranked only lower than Francisco de Quevedo. Certain portions of his satirical lyrics provided offense to the authorities, and the 1798 edition of them was put on the Index by the Inquisition. The necessity of this action was denied by some of his warm friends. Among the better-known editions of his works are those of Barcelona , of Paris , and of Madrid. They are most readily accessible in the "Biblioteca de autores Españoles", vol. LXI, which contains about 38 letrillas—in the composition of which he excelled—besides a numbers of satires, epigrams, odes, anacreontics, ecologues, etc. Not long since, some of his unedited poems were published by Foulche-Delbosc, in the "Revue Hispanique", vol. II
1795 Alessandro Cagliostro the alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo , an Italian adventurer.
1810 Santiago de Liniers 1st Count of Buenos Aires a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He is more widely known by the Spanish form of his name, Santiago de Liniers. He was popularly regarded as the hero of the reconquest of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion of the Río de la Plata, which led to his designation as viceroy, replacing Rafael de Sobremonte. Such a thing, the replacement of a viceroy without the King's direct intervention, was completely unprecedented. He was confirmed in office by Charles IV of Spain, and endured a second ill-fated British Invasion attempt and a mutiny that sought to replace him. He was replaced in 1809 by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, appointed as viceroy by the Junta of Seville, and retired from public activity. However, when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba. However, Liniers was defeated, captured, and executed without trial
1813 Theodor Körner (author) a German poet and soldier. After some time in Vienna, where he wrote some light comedies and other works for the Burgtheater, he became a soldier and joined the Lützow Free Corps in the German uprising against Napoleon. During these times, he displayed personal courage in many fights, and encouraged his comrades by fiery patriotic lyrics he composed, among these being the “Schwertlied" , composed during a lull in fighting only a few hours before his death, and “Lützows wilde Jagd" , each set to music by both Carl Maria von Weber and Franz Schubert. He was often called the “German Tyrtaeus.”
1813 Daniel Gottlob Türk a notable composer, organist, and music professor of the Classical Period.
1826 Józef Zajączek a Polish general and politician.
1830 Carl Fredrik Fallén a Swedish botanist and entomologist.
1850 Louis Philippe I King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had supported the Revolution of 1789 but was nevertheless guillotined during the Reign of Terror. Louis Philippe fled France and spent 21 years in exile. He was proclaimed king in 1830 after Charles X, a Bourbon, was forced to abdicate. His reign, known as the July Monarchy, was dominated by wealthy elite and numerous former Napoleonic officials. He followed conservative policies especially under the influence of François Guizot in 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. His popularity faded and he was forced to abdicate in 1848; he lived out his life in exile in England
1853 James Chalmers (inventor) a Scotsman who it was claimed, by his son, was the inventor of the adhesive postage stamp.
1857 Adolf Schlagintweit a German botanist and explorer of Central Asia. The standard author abbreviation A.Schlag. is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name
1860 Friedrich Silcher a German composer, mainly known for his lieder , and an important folksong collector.
1863 John B. Floyd the 31st Governor of Virginia, U.S. Secretary of War, and the Confederate general in the American Civil War who lost the crucial Battle of Fort Donelson
1865 Johann Franz Encke a German astronomer. Among his activities, he worked on the calculation of the periods of comets and asteroids, measured the distance from the earth to the sun, and made observations of the planet Saturn
1866 Joseph Weydemeyer a military officer in the Kingdom of Prussia and the United States, as well as a journalist, politician and Marxist revolutionary.
1869 Jan August Hendrik Leys a Belgian painter and printmaker, who was a leading representative of the historical or Romantic school and a pioneer of the Realist movement in Belgium.
1870 Alexander George Woodford a British Army officer. After taking part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, he served in most of the battles of the Napoleonic Wars. During the Hundred Days he commanded the 2nd battalion of the Coldstream Guards at the Battle of Quatre Bras, the Battle of Waterloo and the storming of Cambrai. He went on to become lieutenant governor and brigade commander at Malta, lieutenant governor and brigade commander at Corfu and then commander of the British garrison on the Ionian Islands before being appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar
1871 Charles Scribner I a New Yorker who, with Isaac Baker , founded a publishing company that would eventually become Charles Scribner's Sons.
1873 Karl Wilhelm (conductor) a German choral director. He is best known as the composer of the song “Die Wacht am Rhein.”
1878 Mariam Baouardy O.C.D. was a Palestinian Discalced Carmelite nun of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. She was a mystic, who experienced the stigmata, and has been beatified by the Catholic Church
1879 Édouard Chassaignac a French physician. He was born in Nantes and in 1835 became prosecutor and professor at the university and physician at the central bureau of the hospitals of Paris. He originated the surgical operation known as écrasement, by means of which tumors, piles, polypi, and other growths may be removed without the effusion of blood. The general introduction of drainage in surgery is also due to his initiative. He introduced the use of drainage tubes into surgery
1882 Orazio Antinori an Italian explorer and zoologist.
1883 Elisha M. Pease a Texas politician. He served as the fifth and thirteenth governor of Texas
1885 August Gottfried Ritter a German romantic composer and organist.