Born on August 27

749 Qahtaba ibn Shabib al-Ta'i a follower of the Abbasids from Khurasan who played a leading role in the Abbasid Revolution against the Ummayad Caliphate.
1255 Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln an English boy whose death prompted a blood libel. Hugh is known as Little Saint Hugh to distinguish him from Saint Hugh of Lincoln, an adult saint. The style is often corrupted to Little Sir Hugh. Little Saint Hugh became one of the best known of the blood libel saints: generally children whose deaths were interpreted as sacrifices committed by Jews
1407 Ashikaga Yoshikazu the 5th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1423 to 1425 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshikazu was the son of the fourth shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi
1471 George Duke of Saxony duke of Saxony from 1500 to 1539.
1487 Anna of Brandenburg a German noblewoman.
1545 Alexander Farnese Duke of Parma Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. His talents as a field commander, strategician and organizer generally earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age
1568 Hercule Duke of Montbazon a member of the princely House of Rohan. The second Duke of Montbazon, he is an ancestor of the present Princes of Guéméné. His daughter was the famous Frondeur the duchesse de Chevreuse. He was a Peer of France
1624 Koxinga a Chinese military leader who was born in Hirado, Japan to the Chinese merchant/pirate Zheng Zhilong and his Japanese wife Tagawa Matsu, and died on Formosa.
1637 Charles Calvert 3rd Baron Baltimore inherited the colony in 1675 upon the death of his father, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. He had been his father's Deputy Governor since 1661 when he arrived in the colony at the age of 24. However, Charles left Maryland for England in 1684 and would never return. The events following the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688 would cost Calvert his title to Maryland; in 1689 the royal charter to the colony was withdrawn, leading to direct rule by the British Crown. Calvert's political problems were largely caused by his Roman Catholic faith which was at odds with the established Church of England. Calvert married four times, outliving three wives, and had at least two children. He died in England in 1715 at the age of 78, his family fortunes much diminished. With his death he passed his title, and his claim to Maryland, to his second son Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore , his eldest son Cecil having died young. However, Benedict Calvert would outlive his father by just two months, and It would fall to Charles' grandson, Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, , to see the family proprietorship in Maryland restored by the king
1665 John Hervey 1st Earl of Bristol an English politician.
1666 Ivan V of Russia a joint Tsar of Russia who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. He was the youngest son of Alexis I of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya. His reign was only formal, since he had serious physical and mental disabilities. He sat still for hours at a time and needed assistance in order to walk
1669 Anne Marie d'Orléans the first Queen consort of Sardinia and the maternal grandmother of Louis XV of France. She is also an important figure in British history
1677 Otto Ferdinand von Abensberg und Traun an Austrian Generalfeldmarschall. The current spelling of the name, and the spelling used in his time, is mostly Abensperg
1687 Giuseppe Simone Assemani a Lebanese Maronite orientalist.
1700 Carl Hårleman a Swedish architect.
1710 Giuseppe Vasi an Italian engraver and architect, best known for his vedute.
1717 Francesco Saverio de Zelada a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, born of a Spanish family, who served in the Papal Curia and in the diplomatic service of the Holy See.
1724 John Joachim Zubly a Swiss-born American pastor, planter, and statesman during the American Revolution. Although a delegate for Georgia to the Continental Congress in 1775, he resisted independence from Great Britain and became a Loyalist
1730 Johann Georg Hamann a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment. However, recent scholarship such as that by theologian Oswald Bayer places Hamann into a more nebulous category of theologian and philologist, less the proto-Romantic that Herder presented and more a premodern-postmodern thinker who brought the consequences of Lutheran theology to bear upon the burgeoning Enlightenment and especially in reaction to Kant. Goethe and Kierkegaard were among those who considered him to be the finest mind of his time
1770 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism
1776 Barthold Georg Niebuhr a Danish-German statesman and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography. Classical Rome caught the admiration of German thinkers. By 1810 Niebuhr was inspiring German patriotism in students at the University of Berlin by his analysis of Roman economics and government. Historians generally view Niebuhr as a leader of the Romantic Era and symbol of German national spirit that emerged after the defeat at Jena. But he was also deeply rooted in the classical spirit of the Age of Enlightenment in his intellectual presuppositions, his use of philologic analysis, and his emphasis on both general and particular phenomena in history
1781 Finnur Magnússon an Icelandic scholar and archaeologist who worked in Denmark.
1785 Agustín Gamarra a Peruvian soldier and politician, becoming twice President of Peru from 1829 to 1833 and from 1839 to 1841.
1786 Johannes Voigt situated in the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen.
1789 Joseph Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
1797 Edwin James (scientist) a 19th-century American botanist, geographer and geologist who explored the American West. James completed the first recorded ascent of Pikes Peak
1803 Edward Beecher a noted theologian, the son of Lyman Beecher and the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher.
1807 Karl Franzevich Albrecht a German-Russian musician and composer. He was born in Poznań
1809 Hannibal Hamlin the 15th Vice President of the United States , serving under President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. He was the first Vice President from the Republican Party
1810 Carl Ludwig Sigmund an Austrian syphilologist born in Schässburg , Transylvania.
1812 Bertalan Szemere a Hungarian poet and nationalist who became the third Prime Minister of Hungary during the short period of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 when Hungary was independent of rule by the Austrian Empire.
1813 Moïse Polydore Millaud a journalist, banker and entrepreneur who founded Le Petit Journal, at one time the leading newspaper in France.
1818 Henri Weil a German-born French Jewish philologist.
1827 Edmund Knight an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Bishop of Shrewsbury from 1882 to 1895
1827 Roger Hanson a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The commander of the famed "Orphan Brigade," he was mortally wounded at the Battle of Murfreesboro. He was nicknamed "Old Flintlock."
1827 Henry Edwards (entomologist) an English-born stage actor, writer and entomologist who gained fame in Australia, San Francisco and New York City for his theater work.
1832 James A. Walker a Virginia lawyer, politician, and Confederate general during the American Civil War, later serving as a United States Congressman for two terms. He earned the nickname "Stonewall Jim" for his days as commander of the famed Stonewall Brigade, which at one time had been led by its namesake, Stonewall Jackson
1845 Friedrich Martens a diplomat and jurist in service of the Russian Empire who made important contributions to the science of international law. He represented Russia at the Hague Peace Conferences, , and helped to settle the first cases of international arbitration, notably the dispute between France and Great Britain over Newfoundland. As a scholar, he is probably best remembered today for having edited 15 volumes of Russian international treaties
1845 Ödön Lechner a Hungarian architect, nicknamed the "Hungarian Gaudí".
1850 Augusto Righi an Italian physicist and a pioneer in the study of electromagnetism. He was born and died in Bologna
1851 Edgardo Mortara born as an Italian Jew and became the center of an international controversy when he was removed from his parents by authorities of the Papal States and raised as a Catholic. He became a priest in the Augustinian order
1856 Ivan Franko a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language.
1857 Oskar von Hutier an Imperial Germany general during the First World War. He served in the German Army from 1875 to 1919, including war service. During the war, he commanded the army that conquered Riga in 1917 and was transferred to the Western Front in 1918 to participate in the Michael offensive that year. He is frequently but mistakenly credited with inventing the stormtroop tactics his forces employed to great effect during the Michael offensive. After retiring from the Army in 1919, he presided over the German Officers' League until his death on 5 December 1934
1858 Per Winge a Norwegian conductor, pianist and composer, known primarily for his vocal works.
1858 Giuseppe Peano an Italian mathematician. The author of over 200 books and papers, he was a founder of mathematical logic and set theory, to which he contributed much notation. The standard axiomatization of the natural numbers is named the Peano axioms in his honor. As part of this effort, he made key contributions to the modern rigorous and systematic treatment of the method of mathematical induction. He spent most of his career teaching mathematics at the University of Turin
1859 Willem Caland a Dutch Indologist. He studied in Leiden and graduated in 1882
1860 Yevgeny Garshin a Russian teacher, novelist, publisher, director of the Commercial College in Taganrog , younger brother of the Russian writer Vsevolod Garshin.
1862 James Bilsborrow an English Roman Catholic prelate and Benedictine priest. He served as the first Archbishop of Cardiff , having previously been Bishop of Port-Louis
1862 Abram Arkhipov a Russian realist artist, who was a member of the art collective The Wanderers as well as the Union of Russian Artists.
1864 Hermann Weingärtner a German gymnast.