Born on August 28

933 Richard I Duke of Normandy the Duke of Normandy from 942 to 996. Dudo of Saint-Quentin, whom Richard commissioned to write his De moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum , called him a dux, but this use of the word may have been in the context of Richard's leadership in war, and not a reference to a title of nobility. Richard either introduced feudalism into Normandy, or he greatly expanded By the end of his reign, most important landholders held their lands in feudal tenure
1023 Emperor Go-Reizei the 70th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1312 Henry XV Duke of Bavaria as duke of Lower Bavaria also called Henry III.
1366 Jean Le Maingre marshal of France and a knight renowned for his military skill.
1476 Kanō Motonobu a Japanese painter. He was a member of the Kanō school of painting. Through his political connections, patronage, organization, and influence he was able to make the Kano school into what it is today. The system was responsible for the training of a great majority of painters throughout the Edo period
1481 Francisco de Sá de Miranda For the 19th century Venezuelan politician with similar name, see Francisco de Miranda.
1582 Taichang Emperor the fourteenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty. He was born Zhu Changluo , the eldest son of the Wanli Emperor and succeeded his father as emperor in 1620. However his reign came to an abrupt end less than one month after his coronation when he was found dead one morning in the palace following a bout of diarrhea. He was succeeded by his son Zhu Youxiao, who became the Tianqi Emperor. His era name means "Great goodness" or "Great prosperity"
1592 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham the favourite, claimed by some to be the lover, of King James I of England. Despite a very patchy political and military record, he remained at the height of royal favour for the first three years of the reign of Charles I, until he was assassinated
1605 Ajige a prince and general of the Qing Dynasty. He was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the 12th son of Nurhaci, khan of the Later Jin Dynasty
1612 Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn a Dutch scholar. Born in Bergen op Zoom, he was professor at the University of Leiden. He discovered the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed the existence of a primitive common language which he called 'Scythian'. He included in his hypothesis Greek, Latin, Persian, Turkish, and Germanic languages, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. He excluded such languages as Hebrew from his hypothesis
1639 Marie Mancini the third of the five Mancini sisters; nieces to Cardinal Mazarin who were brought to France to marry advantageously. Along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, the Mancini sisters were known at the court of King Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes
1644 Gilles Schey a Dutch admiral.
1647 Erik Carlsson Sjöblad a Swedish governor, admiral, and baron.
1662 Maria Aurora von Königsmarck a Swedish noblewoman of Brandenburg extraction and mistress of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.
1667 Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow Queen consort of Denmark and Norway as the first spouse of the King Frederick IV of Denmark.
1670 François Joseph Duke of Guise the only son of Louis Joseph de Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans, suo jure duchess of Alençon.
1691 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary; and Archduchess of Austria by her marriage to Emperor Charles She was renowned for her delicate beauty and also for being the mother of Empress Maria Theresa. She is also the maternal grandmother of Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France, though she died five years before her granddaughter's birth in 1755. She was also the longest serving Holy Roman Empress
1694 Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg the wife of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia. She was the daughter of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen. She was also the great aunt of Marie Antoinette
1702 Jean Philippe d'Orléans an illegitimate son of Philippe d'Orléans, nephew and son-in-law of Louis XIV.
1714 Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick generalissimus of the Army of Russia, and the husband of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned as regent of Russia for one year.
1718 Claude-Henri Watelet a rich French fermier-général who was an amateur painter, a well-respected etcher, a writer on the arts and a connoisseur of gardens. Watelet's inherited privilege of farming taxes in the Orléanais left him free to pursue his avocations, art and literature and gardens. His Essai sur les jardins, 1774, firmly founded on English ideas expressed by Thomas Whately, introduced the English landscape garden to France, as the jardin Anglois. The sociable Watelet, who was born and died in Paris, was at the center of the French art world of his time
1728 John Stark a New Hampshire native who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. He became widely known as the "Hero of Bennington" for his exemplary service at the Battle of Bennington in 1777
1735 Andreas Peter Bernstorff a Danish statesman and politician. He was a Danish minister, father of Christian Günther von Bernstorff, and a guardian of civil and political liberty
1739 Agostino Accorimboni an Italian composer known mostly for his operas. He composed thirteen operas of which ten premiered in Rome between 1770 and 1785
1744 Friederike Auguste Sophie of Anhalt-Bernburg a princess consort of Anhalt-Zerbst. She was married to Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and sister-in-law to the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. She was the regent governor of Jever from April 1793 until October 1806
1749 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe a German writer and statesman. His body of work includes epic and lyric poetry written in a variety of metres and styles; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour; and four novels. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him are extant
1765 Tadeusz Czacki a Polish historian, pedagogue and numismatist. Czacki played an important part in the Enlightenment in Poland
1770 Michel Claparède a French general. His name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe
1770 Johann Karl Simon Morgenstern a German philologist in Livonia, the first director of the library of the Imperial University of Dorpat. He coined the term Bildungsroman
1774 Elizabeth Ann Seton the first native-born citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. She established the first Catholic school in the nation, at Emmitsburg, Maryland, where she founded the first American congregation of religious sisters, the Sisters of Charity
1779 Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a German princess of the House of Wettin. By marriage, she was a Duchess of Württemberg. Through her eldest surviving son, she is the ancestress of today's House of Württemberg
1782 Antoine Maurice Apollinaire d'Argout a French statesman, minister and governor of the Bank of France.
1789 Stéphanie de Beauharnais the consort of Karl, Grand Duke of Baden.
1796 Irénée-Jules Bienaymé a French statistician. He built on the legacy of Laplace generalizing his least squares method. He contributed to the fields and probability, and statistics and to their application to finance, demography and social sciences. In particular, he formulated the Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality concerning the law of large numbers and the Bienaymé formula for the variance of a sum of uncorrelated random variables
1797 Karl Otfried Müller a German scholar and Philodorian, or admirer of ancient Sparta, who introduced the modern study of Greek mythology.
1801 Antoine Augustin Cournot a French philosopher and mathematician.
1802 Karl Joseph Simrock a German poet and writer. He is primarily known for his translation of the Nibelungenlied into modern German
1802 Thomas Aird a Scottish poet, best known for his 1830 narrative poem The Captive of Fez.
1810 Ormsby M. Mitchel an American astronomer and major general in the American Civil War.
1810 Carl August Haupt a German organist, organ teacher and composer.
1810 Constant Troyon born in Sèvres, near Paris, where his father was connected with the famous manufactory of porcelain.
1812 Rudolf von Alt an Austrian landscape and architectural painter. Born as Rudolf Alt, he could call himself von Alt and bear the title of a Ritter after he gained nobility in 1889
1814 Sheridan Le Fanu an Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels. He was the leading ghost-story writer of the nineteenth century and was central to the development of the genre in the Victorian era. Three of his best-known works are Uncle Silas, Carmilla and The House by the Churchyard
1819 Adolphe Appian a French landscape painter and etcher.
1823 Charles Christopher Parry a British-American botanist and mountaineer.
1824 Dmitry Rovinsky an art historian and compiler of reference albums on Russian portraits and engravings of the 18th to 19th centuries. He was an honorary member of the Academy of Science and Academy of Arts
1825 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs seen today as the pioneer of the modern gay rights movement.
1826 Mikhail Stasyulevich a Russian writer, scholar, historian, journalist, editor and publisher.
1827 Grand Duchess Catherine Mikhailovna of Russia the third of five daughters of Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia, youngest son of Tsar Paul I, and Princess Charlotte of Württemberg.
1831 Lucy Webb Hayes a First Lady of the United States and the wife of President Rutherford Hayes.