Born on August 3

908 Burchard Duke of Thuringia the Duke of Thuringia from shortly after 892 until his death. He replaced Poppo as duke shortly after his appointment in 892, but the reasons for Poppo's leaving office are unknown. Burchard may have been a Swabian
1491 Maria of Jülich-Berg born in Jülich, the daughter of Wilhelm IV, Duke of Jülich-Berg and Sibylle of Brandenburg.
1509 Étienne Dolet a French scholar, translator and printer. Dolet was a controversial figure throughout his lifetime. His scientific scholarship aroused many suspicions concerning his religious views. After being imprisoned several times, he was eventually arrested and burned with his books on orders of the theological faculty of the Sorbonne
1513 John Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin a member of the House of Hohenzollern and a Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin.
1527 Scaramuccia Trivulzio a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was Bishop of Como in Italy, from 1508 to 1518. He was then Bishop of Piacenza, from 1519 to 1525
1638 William Louis Prince of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen.
1649 Mykhailo Krychevsky a Polish noble, military officer and Cossack commander.
1654 Charles I Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1670 to 1730.
1692 John Henley a preacher known for showmanship and eccentricity.
1729 Anton Rolandsson Martin a Swedish botanist.
1746 James Wyatt an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style.
1749 Domenico Alberto Azuni an Italian jurist.
1757 François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine de Montesquiou-Fézensac a French clergyman and politician.
1766 Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel a German botanist and physician.
1766 Aaron Chorin a Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of early religious reform. He favored the use of the organ and of prayers in the vernacular, and was instrumental in founding schools along modern lines. Chorin was thus regarded as a leader of the newer Judaism. He also interested himself in public affairs—he took an active part in the efforts for Jewish emancipation, and was very influential with the state authorities
1770 Frederick William III of Prussia king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. He ruled Prussia during the difficult times of the Napoleonic wars and the end of the old German Empire. Steering a careful course between France and her enemies, after a major military defeat in 1806, he eventually and reluctantly joined the coalition against Napoleon in the Befreiungskriege. Following Napoleon's defeat he was King of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna which assembled to settle the political questions arising from the new, post-Napoleonic order in Europe
1777 Eustache-Hyacinthe Langlois a celebrated French painter, draftsman, engraver and writer. He became known as the "Norman Callot". He taught both his daughter Espérance Langlois and his son Polyclès Langlois and they often assisted him with drawings and engravings
1790 John Cockerill (industrialist) a Belgian entrepreneur. Born at Haslingden, Lancashire, England, he was brought by his father William Cockerill to Belgium where he continued the family tradition of building wool processing machinery. He founded an ironworks and a mechanical engineering company John Cockerill & Cie
1791 Charles Gordon-Lennox 5th Duke of Richmond a British soldier, politician and a prominent Conservative.
1798 Prosper Duvergier de Hauranne a French journalist and politician.
1803 Joseph Paxton an English gardener, architect and Member of Parliament, best known for designing The Crystal Palace.
1804 Pavel Petrovich Melnikov a Russian engineer and administrator who, in his capacity as Transport Minister, was in a large measure responsible for the introduction of railroad construction in Imperial Russia.
1808 Hamilton Fish an American statesman and politician who served as the 16th Governor of New York, a United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. Fish has been considered one of the best Secretaries of State in the United States' history, known for his judiciousness and reform efforts during the Grant Administration. Fish settled the controversial Alabama Claims with Great Britain through his development of the concept of international arbitration. Fish kept the United States out of war with Spain over Cuban independence by coolly handling the volatile Virginius Incident. In 1875, Fish initiated the process for Hawaiian statehood, by having negotiated a reciprocal trade treaty for the island nation's sugar production. Fish organized a peace conference and treaty in Washington D.C. between South American countries and Spain. Fish worked with James Milton Turner, America's first African American consul, to settle the Liberian-Grebo war. President Grant stated that Hamilton Fish, above all, was the person whom he most trusted for political advice
1811 Wilhelm Hanstein a German chess player and writer.
1811 Elisha Otis an American industrialist, founder of the Otis Elevator Company, and inventor of a safety device that prevents elevators from falling if the hoisting cable fails. He worked on this device while living in Yonkers, New York in 1852, and had a finished product in 1854
1817 Archduke Albrecht Duke of Teschen an Austrian Habsburg general. Inspector General for 36 years, he was honored with the rank of Field Marshal in the armies of Austria-Hungary and Germany
1825 Henry Holland 1st Viscount Knutsford a British Conservative politician, best known for serving as Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1887 to 1892.
1827 Ferdinand Morawitz a Russian entomologist.
1829 Laurence Oliphant (author) a British author, traveller, diplomat and Christian mystic. He is best known for his satirical novel Piccadilly. Oliphant was Member of Parliament for Stirling Burghs
1832 Ivan Zajc a Croatian composer, conductor, director and teacher who for over forty years dominated Croatia's musical culture. Through his artistic and institutional reform efforts, he is credited with its revitalization and refinement, paving the way for new and significant Croatian musical achievements in the 20th century. He is often called the Croatian Verdi
1832 Edward Wilmot Blyden an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician primarily in Liberia born in the West Indies, he joined the free black immigrants to the region from the United States; he also taught for five years in Sierra Leone in the early 20th century. His writings on pan-Africanism were influential in both colonies, which were started during the slavery years for the resettlement of free blacks from the United States and Great Britain. His writings attracted attention in the sponsoring countries as well. He felt that Zionism was a model for what he called Ethiopianism, and that African Americans could "return" to Africa and redeem Later he supported Islam
1837 Georg Semper a German entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera.
1840 John Bigham 1st Viscount Mersey a British jurist and politician. After early success as a lawyer, and a less successful spell as a politician, he was appointed a judge, working in commercial law
1843 Shō Tai the last king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom and the head of the Ryūkyū Domain. His reign saw greatly increased interactions with travelers from abroad, particularly from Europe and the United States, as well as the eventual end of the kingdom and its annexation by Japan as Ryūkyū Domain
1844 Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy a French archaeologist, noted for his excavations at Susa in 1885 and for his work, L'Art antique de la Perse.
1847 John Hamilton-Gordon 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair a Scottish politician. Born in Edinburgh, Hamilton-Gordon held office in several countries, serving twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and serving from 1893 to 1898 as the seventh Governor General of Canada
1850 Reginald Heber Roe a headmaster of Brisbane Grammar School, Queensland, Australia and first vice-chancellor of the University of Queensland.
1851 Nikolay Iudovich Ivanov a general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
1851 George Francis FitzGerald an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, during the last quarter of the 19th century. He is known for his work in electromagnetic theory and for the Lorentz–FitzGerald contraction, which became an integral part of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. The FitzGerald crater on the far side of the Moon is named for him. The FitzGerald Building at Trinity College, Dublin is named after him
1852 Domenico Serafini an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served in various pastoral, diplomatic, and curial posts, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1914.
1855 Joe Hunter (cricketer) a professional cricketer, who played 143 matches for Yorkshire County Cricket Club between 1878 and 1888. Hunter also played five Test matches for England
1856 Alfred Deakin a leader of the movement for Australian federation and later the second Prime Minister of Australia. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Deakin was a major contributor to the establishment of liberal reforms in the colony of Victoria, including pro-worker industrial reforms. He also played a major part in establishing irrigation in Australia. It is likely that he could have been Premier of Victoria, but he chose to devote his energy to federation
1858 Paul Sabatier a French clergyman and historian who produced the first modern biography of Francis of Assisi. He is the brother of Auguste Sabatier
1858 Matvey Kuzmin a Russian peasant who was killed in World War He was posthumously named a Hero of the Soviet Union on May 8, 1965, becoming the oldest person named a Hero of the Soviet Union based on his age at death.
1860 William Kennedy Dickson a Scottish inventor who devised an early motion picture camera under the employment of Thomas Edison.
1861 Michel Verne a writer, editor, and the son of Jules Verne.
1862 Oswald Külpe one of the structural psychologists of the late 19th and early 20th century.
1863 Géza Gárdonyi a Hungarian writer and journalist. Although he wrote a range of works, he had his greatest success as a historical novelist, particularly with Eclipse of the Crescent Moon and Slave of the Huns
1863 Aleksey Krylov a Russian naval engineer, applied mathematician and memoirist.
1867 Stanley Baldwin a British Conservative politician, who dominated the government in his country between the two world wars. Three times Prime Minister, he is the only premier to have served under three monarchs