Died on August 31

651 Aidan of Lindisfarne an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria. He founded a monastic cathedral on the island of Lindisfarne, served as its first bishop, and travelled ceaselessly throughout the countryside, spreading the gospel to both the Anglo-Saxon nobility and to the socially disenfranchised
731 Ōtomo no Tabito a Japanese poet, best known as the father of Ōtomo no Yakamochi, who contributed to compiling the Man'yōshū alongside his father. Tabito was a contemporary of Hitomaro, but lacked his success in the Imperial Court. While serving as Governor-General of Dazaifu, the military procuracy in northern Kyūshū from 728-730, Tabito hosted a plum-blossom party, encouraging the composition of poetry among his subordinates in imitation of Chinese style elegance. He also showed his Chinese education in his set of thirteen tanka in praise of sake
836 Wala of Corbie a son of Bernard, son of Charles Martel, and one of the principal advisers of his cousin Charlemagne, of Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious, and of Louis's son Lothair He succeeded his brother Adalard as abbot of Corbie and its new daughter foundation, Corvey, in 826 or 827.
1158 Sancho III of Castile King of Castile and Toledo for one year, from 1157 to 1158. During the Reconquista, in which he took an active part, he founded the Order of Calatrava. He was called el Deseado due to his position as the first child of his parents, born after eight years of childless marriage
1234 Emperor Go-Horikawa the 86th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years from 1221 through 1232
1240 Raymond Nonnatus a saint from Catalonia in Spain. His nickname refers to his birth by Caesarean section, his mother having died while giving birth to him
1247 Konrad I of Masovia the sixth Duke of Masovia from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
1372 Ralph de Stafford 1st Earl of Stafford an English nobleman and notable soldier during the Hundred Years War against France.
1422 Henry V of England King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of either 34 or 35 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster
1470 Frederick II Count of Vaudémont Count of Vaudémont and Lord of Joinville from 1458 to 1470. He was son of Antoine of Lorraine, Count of Vaudémont and Lord of Joinville and Marie, Countess of Aumale and Baroness of Elbeuf. He is sometimes numbered Frederick V by continuity with the Dukes of Lorraine
1528 Matthias Grünewald a German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the expressive and intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century. His first name is also given as Mathis and his surname as Gothart or Neithardt. Only ten paintings—several consisting of many panels—and thirty-five drawings survive, all religious, although many others were lost at sea in the Baltic on their way to Sweden as war booty. His reputation was obscured until the late nineteenth century, and many of his paintings were attributed to Albrecht Dürer, who is now seen as his stylistic antithesis. His largest and most famous work is the Isenheim Altarpiece created 1506 to 1515 or perhaps 1512 to 1516
1601 Gian Vincenzo Pinelli an Italian humanist, born in Naples and known as a savant and a mentor of Galileo. His literary correspondence put him at the center of a European network of virtuosi. He was also a noted botanist, bibliophile and collector of scientific instruments
1645 Francesco Bracciolini an Italian poet.
1655 Ole Worm a Danish physician and antiquary.
1676 Lars Stigzelius Archbishop of Uppsala in the Church of Sweden from 1670 to his death.
1678 Louis VII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt a Hessian regent.
1688 John Bunyan an English Christian writer and preacher. He is the author of The Pilgrim's Progress, arguably the most famous published Christian allegory. In addition to The Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyan wrote nearly sixty titles, many of them expanded sermons
1709 Andrea Pozzo an Italian Jesuit Brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician.
1724 Louis I of Spain King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months
1730 Gottfried Finger a Moravian Baroque composer. He was also a virtuoso on the Viol, and many of his compositions were for the instrument. He also wrote operas. Finger was born in Olomouc, modern-day Czech Republic, and worked for the court of James II of England before becoming a freelance composer
1741 Kazimierz Czartoryski a Polish nobleman, Duke of Klewań and Żuków.
1741 Johann Gottlieb Heineccius a German jurist from Eisenberg, Thuringia.
1762 Emperor Momozono the 116th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1762 Pietro Rotari an Italian painter of the Baroque period. Born in Verona, he led a peripatetic career, and died in St Petersburg, where he had traveled to paint for the Russian court
1771 Ursin Durand a French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, and historian.
1772 William Borlase Cornish antiquary, geologist and naturalist. From 1722 he was Rector of Ludgvan, Cornwall, where he died in 1772
1785 Pietro Chiari an Italian playwright, novelist and librettist.
1795 François-André Danican Philidor a French composer and chess player. He contributed to the early development of the opéra comique. He was also regarded as the best chess player of his age; his book Analyse du jeu des Échecs was considered a standard chess manual for at least a century, and a well-known chess opening and a checkmate method are both named after him
1795 Maruyama Ōkyo a Japanese artist active in the late 18th century. He moved to Kyoto, during which he studied artworks from Chinese, Japanese and Western sources. A personal style of Western naturalism mixed with Eastern decorative design emerged, and Ōkyo founded the Maruyama school of painting. Although many of his fellow artists criticized his work as too slavishly devoted to natural representation, it proved a success with laymen
1796 John McKinly an American physician and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a veteran of the French and Indian War, served in the Delaware General Assembly, was the first elected President of Delaware, and for a time was a member of the Federalist Party
1799 Nicolas-Henri Jardin born in Germain des Noyers, Dept. Seine-et-Marne, France, and worked seventeen years in Denmark as an architect to the royal court. He introduced neoclassicism to Denmark
1801 Nicola Sala an Italian composer and music theorist. He was born in Tocco Caudio and died in Naples. He was chapel-master and professor at Naples, having devoted himself to the collection of the finest models of printed music
1807 Christoph Friedrich Bretzner a Leipzig merchant famous for writing the libretto to a singspiel Belmont und Constanze, oder Die Entführung aus dem Serail, produced in Berlin and adapted in 1782 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Gottlieb Stephanie as Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Bretzner protested against the adaptations on the grounds that original text was stolen by Gottlieb Stephanie who then modified it for Mozart's performances
1807 Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun a French lyric poet.
1811 Louis Antoine de Bougainville a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, he took part in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean
1814 Arthur Phillip the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the settlement which became Sydney.
1816 Joaquín Camacho now Colombia, and participated in the Open Cabildo which declared the Act of Independence, of which he was also a signer. He was executed during the Reign of Terror of Pablo Morillo after the Spanish invasion of New Granada
1817 Sir John Duckworth 1st Baronet an officer of the Royal Navy, serving during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as the Governor of Newfoundland during the War of 1812, and a member of the British House of Commons during his semi-retirement. Duckworth, a vicar's son, achieved much in a naval career that began at the age of 11
1824 Joseph Potaski the first Pole to settle in Australia, and one of the first convicts to arrive in Van Diemen's Land on the Ocean. Joseph Potaski worked hard to establish himself as a successful farmer in colonial Hobart. This was however undone by the exploits of his family. Joseph Potaski reflects the attitudes of those convicts who never progressed beyond their criminal past. Potaski is seen as representing the auspicious beginning of the Polish community in Australia
1831 Adam Menelaws an architect and landscape designer of Scottish origin, active in the Russian Empire from 1784 to 1831. Menelaws achieved success in the first two decades of the 19th century as the designer of town and country residences and parks of Razumovsky and Stroganov families, and later worked for emperor Alexander I, specializing in Gothic Revival architecture. From 1825 to 1831 Menelaws, then in his seventies, became the first house architect of Nicholas I and de facto the leading architect of the Empire. Except for this final, properly evidenced, stage, life story of Adam Menelaws remains scarcely documented and has been reconstructed by biographers based on sketchy archive data and circumstantial evidence; Menelaws still "belongs to the category of almost unknown"
1832 Everard Home a British surgeon.
1832 Antoine-Léonard de Chézy a French orientalist.
1834 Karl Ludwig Harding a German astronomer notable for having discovered the asteroid 3 Juno.
1839 William Wilkins (architect) an English architect, classical scholar and archaeologist. He designed the National Gallery and University College London, and buildings for several Cambridge colleges
1854 Philip Barker-Webb an English botanist.
1855 Magnus Georg Paucker the first Demidov Prize winner in 1832 for his work Handbuch der Metrologie Rußlands und seiner deutschen Provinzen.
1864 Ferdinand Lassalle a German-Jewish jurist, philosopher, and socialist political activist. Lassalle is best remembered as an initiator of international-style socialism in Germany
1865 John Appold a British fur dyer and engineer. Appold was the son of a fur-skin dyer, established in Finsbury. Succeeding to his father's business at the age of twenty-two, he introduced into it so many scientific improvements that he soon amassed a considerable fortune and was able to devote his time and attention to his favourite mechanical pursuits. His inventions, though numerous and evincing very great ingenuity, were not of the very highest class
1865 John Farrell (VC) a British Army soldier and Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
1867 Charles Baudelaire a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His most famous work, Les Fleurs du mal , expresses the changing nature of beauty in modern, industrializing Paris during the 19th century. Baudelaire's highly original style of prose-poetry influenced a whole generation of poets including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé among many others. He is credited with coining the term "modernity" to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in an urban metropolis, and the responsibility art has to capture that experience