Born on August 4

1222 Richard de Clare 6th Earl of Gloucester son of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal. On his father's death, when he became Earl of Gloucester , he was entrusted first to the guardianship of Hubert de Burgh. On Hubert's fall, his guardianship was given to Peter des Roches ; and in 1235 to Gilbert, Earl Marshall
1281 Külüg Khan Emperor Wuzong of Yuan regarded as the seventh Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia. His name means "warrior Khan or fine horse Khan" in the Mongolian language
1290 Leopold I Duke of Austria Duke of Austria and Styria – as co-ruler with his elder brother Frederick the Fair – from 1308 until his death. Born at Vienna, he was the third son of King Albert I of Germany and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol, a scion of the Meinhardiner dynasty
1379 Henry III of Castile the son of John I and Eleanor of Aragon. He succeeded his father as King of Castile in 1390
1463 Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici an Italian banker and politician, and the brother of Giovanni il Popolano. He belonged to the junior branch of the House of Medici of Florence
1470 Lucrezia de' Medici (1470–1553) an Italian noblewoman, the eldest daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini and mother of Maria Salviati and Giovanni Salviati, who was a cardinal from 1517 until his death. Her portrait was considered as the baby Jesus in Our Lady of the Magnificat of Sandro Botticelli
1521 Pope Urban VII Pope from 15 to 27 September 1590. His thirteen-day papacy was the shortest in history
1561 John Harington (writer) a courtier, author and master of art, popularly known as the inventor of the flush toilet. He became a prominent member of Queen Elizabeth I's court, and was known as her "saucy Godson". But because of his poetry and other writings, he fell in and out of favour with the Queen
1594 Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble.
1604 François Hédelin abbé d'Aubignac a French author and cleric.
1608 John Tradescant the Younger a botanist and gardener, born in Meopham, Kent and educated at The King's School, Canterbury. Unlike his father, who collected specimens that other people brought back for him, he went in person to Virginia between 1628-1637 to collect plants. Among the seeds he brought back, to introduce to English gardens were great American trees, like Magnolias, Bald Cypress and Tulip tree, and garden plants such phlox and asters. He also added to the cabinet of curiosities his American acquisitions such as the ceremonial cloak of Chief Powhatan, one of the most important Native American relics. Tradescant Road, off South Lambeth Road in Vauxhall, marks the former boundary of the Tradescant estate, where the collection was kept
1610 Cornelis Evertsen the Elder a Dutch admiral.
1647 Giovanni II Cornaro a Venetian nobleman and statesman; he served as the 111th Doge of Venice from 22 May 1709 until his death.
1703 Louis d'Orléans Duke of Orléans the Duke of Orléans and a member of the royal family of France, the House of Bourbon, and as such was a prince du sang. At his father's death, he became the First Prince of the Blood. Known as Louis le Pieux and also as Louis le Génovéfain, Louis was a pious, charitable and cultured prince, who took very little part in the politics of the time
1713 Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen a Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She served as regent for her son after the death of her spouse
1719 Johann Gottlob Lehmann (scientist) a German mineralogist and geologist noted for his work and research contributions to the geologic record leading to the development of stratigraphy.
1721 Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Marquess of Stafford a British politician.
1725 John Newton an English sailor, in the Royal Navy for a period, and later a captain of slave ships. He became ordained as an evangelical Anglican cleric, served Olney, Buckinghamshire for two decades, and also wrote hymns, known for Amazing Grace and Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken
1747 Olfert Fischer a Danish officer in the Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy. He commanded the Dano-Norwegian fleet against British forces under Lord Nelson during the Battle of Copenhagen on 2 April 1801
1755 Nicolas-Jacques Conté a French painter, balloonist, army officer, and inventor of the modern pencil.
1756 Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny a French admiral and politician.
1769 Vasily Stasov a Russian architect.
1770 François Étienne de Kellermann a French cavalry general noted for his daring and skillful exploits during the Napoleonic Wars. He was the son of François Christophe de Kellermann and the father of the diplomat François Christophe Edmond de Kellermann
1776 Pierre-Simon Ballanche a French writer and counterrevolutionary philosopher, who elaborated a theology of progress that possessed considerable influence in French literary circles in the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the ninth member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1842
1783 Domingo Caycedo a Colombian statesman who served as Vice-president of Gran Colombia and the Republic of New Granada, and due to the absence of the presidents, he himself served as President a total of eleven times, making him the person to have served more times as President of Colombia. He is also credited for creating the Republic of New Granada after the division of Venezuela and Ecuador
1786 Dominik Hieronim Radziwiłł Polish-Lithuanian nobleman.
1792 Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour a French Catholic Archbishop of Paris.
1792 Edward Irving a Scottish clergyman, generally regarded as the main figure behind the foundation of the Catholic Apostolic Church.
1792 Percy Bysshe Shelley regarded by critics as amongst the finest lyric poets in the English language. A radical in his poetry as well as his political and social views, Shelley did not achieve fame during his lifetime, but recognition for his poetry grew steadily following his death. Shelley was a key member of a close circle of visionary poets and writers that included Lord Byron; Leigh Hunt; Thomas Love Peacock; and his own second wife, Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein
1801 Augustin-Alexandre Dumont a French sculptor.
1804 Karl Friedrich Hermann a German classical scholar and antiquary.
1805 William Rowan Hamilton an Irish physicist, astronomer, and mathematician, who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra. His studies of mechanical and optical systems led him to discover new mathematical concepts and techniques. His best known contribution to mathematical physics is the reformulation of Newtonian mechanics, now called Hamiltonian mechanics. This work has proven central to the modern study of classical field theories such as electromagnetism, and to the development of quantum mechanics. In pure mathematics, he is best known as the inventor of quaternions
1810 Maurice de Guérin a French poet.
1813 Alexander von Mensdorff-Pouilly Prince Dietrichstein von Nicolsburg an Austrian general, diplomat and politician, including two years as Minister of Foreign Affairs and one month's service as Minister-President of Austria.
1817 Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen a member of the United States Senate representing New Jersey and a United States Secretary of State.
1821 Louis Vuitton (designer) a French businessman. He was the founder of the Louis Vuitton brand of leather goods now owned by LVMH. Prior to this, he had been appointed as trunk-maker to Empress Eugénie de Montijo, wife of Napoleon III
1821 James Springer White 2013.
1825 Domingo Santa María a Chilean political figure. He served as the president of Chile between 1881 and 1886
1826 Jean Odon Debeaux a French military pharmacist, botanist and malacologist.
1833 Orest Miller a Russian folklorist, professor in Russian literature, of German origin. He is author of the book "Илья Муромец и богатырство киевское"
1834 John Venn an English logician and philosopher noted for introducing the Venn diagram, used in the fields of set theory, probability, logic, statistics, and computer science.
1834 Gaspar Núñez de Arce a Spanish poet, dramatist and statesman.
1838 Gustave Flourens a French Revolutionary leader and writer, son of the physiologist Jean Pierre Flourens. He was also the elder brother of Emile Flourens, who became minister of foreign affairs under the Third Republic
1839 Calixto García a general in three Cuban uprisings, part of the Cuban War for Independence: Ten Years' War, the Little War and the War of 1895, itself sometimes called the Cuban War for Independence, which bled into the Spanish-American War, ultimately resulting in national independence for Cuba.
1839 Walter Pater an English essayist, literary and art critic, and writer of fiction.
1844 Henri Berger a Prussian Kapellmeister composer and royal bandmaster of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1872 to his death.
1846 Stephan Sinding a Norwegian-Danish sculptor. He moved to Copenhagen in 1883 and had his breakthrough the same year. In 1890 he obtained Danish citizenship. In 1910 he settled in Paris where he lived and worked until his death in 1922
1847 Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria known as a champion for Majorca's wildlife, in an era when the term "conservation" meant nothing.
1848 Otto von Emmich a Prussian general.
1851 Aleksandr Gerngross a general in the Imperial Russian Army during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.