Died on August 4

785 Al-Mahdi the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 158 AH to 169 He succeeded his father, al-Mansur.
966 Berengar II of Italy the King of Italy from 950 until his deposition in 961. He was a scion of the Anscarid and Unruoching dynasties, and was named after his maternal grandfather, Berengar He succeeded his father as Margrave of Ivrea around 923 , and after 940 led the aristocratic opposition to Kings Hugh and Lothair In 950 he succeeded the latter and had his son, Adalbert crowned as his co-ruler. In 952 he recognised the suzerainty of Otto I of Germany, but he later joined a revolt against him. In 960 he invaded the Papal States, and the next year his kingdom was conquered by Otto. Berengar remained at large until his surrender in 964. He died imprisoned in Germany two years later
1060 Henry I of France the King of the Franks from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign, and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians. This is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy
1113 Gertrude of Saxony a countess consort of Holland, and a countess consort of Flanders by marriage. She was regent of Holland during the minority of her son
1265 Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester a French nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England. He led the rebellion against King Henry III of England during the Second Barons' War of 1263–4, and subsequently became de facto ruler of England. During his rule, de Montfort called two famous parliaments. The first stripped the king of unlimited authority, the second included ordinary citizens from the towns. For this reason, Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy. After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the king in the Battle of Evesham
1265 Hugh le Despencer 1st Baron le Despencer an important ally of Simon de Montfort during the reign of Henry III. He served briefly as Justiciar of England in 1260 and as Constable of the Tower of London
1266 Odo Count of Nevers Count of Nevers and Auxerre and the heir of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. His mother was Yolande of Dreux
1306 Wenceslaus III of Bohemia by inheritance the King of Bohemia , the King of Hungary and the King of Poland.
1378 Galeazzo II Visconti a member of the Visconti dynasty and a ruler of Milan, Italy.
1430 Philip I Duke of Brabant also known as Philip of Saint Pol , younger son of Antoine, Duke of Brabant and Jeanne of Saint-Pol, succeeded his brother John as Duke of Brabant in 1427. He had already been given Saint-Pol and Ligny as an appanage on the death of his grandfather Waleran III in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt
1477 Jacques d'Armagnac Duke of Nemours the son of Bernard d'Armagnac, count of Pardiac, and Eleanor of Bourbon-La Marche.
1525 Andrea della Robbia an Italian Renaissance sculptor, especially in ceramics.
1526 Juan Sebastián Elcano a Spanish Basque explorer who completed the first circumnavigation. After Magellan's death in the Philippines, Elcano took command of the nau Victoria from the Moluccas to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain
1571 Astorre Baglioni an Italian condottiero and military commander.
1578 Sebastian of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
1578 Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I Saadi the Saadi Sultan of Morocco from 1576 until his death right after the Battle of Ksar El Kebir against Portugal in 1578.
1578 Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi the oldest son of Abdallah al-Ghalib and became the sultan of Morocco after his father's death.
1578 Thomas Stukley an English mercenary who fought in France, Ireland, and at the Battle of Lepanto and was killed at the Battle of Alcazar. It was alleged that he was an illegitimate son of King Henry VIII. He was a Roman Catholic recusant and a rebel against the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I
1579 Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz Grand Pantler of Lithuania 1559, general starost of Samogitia 1563, Elder of Samogitia 1564, starost of Telšiai and Plateliai 1566, Livonia Hetman and governor, Grand Marshal of Lithuania 1566, Kaunas starost 1569, Count on Szkłów 1568, Vilnius castellan 1574.
1588 Archibald Douglas 8th Earl of Angus the son of David, 7th Earl of Angus. He succeeded to the title and estates in 1558, being brought up by his uncle, James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, a Presbyterian. In 1573 he was made a Privy Councillor and Sheriff of Berwickshire; in 1574 Lieutenant-General in Scotland; in 1577 Warden of the West Marches and Steward of Fife; and in 1578 Lieutenant-General of the realm. As a supporter of Morton and "ultra-Protestant" policy he was twice forced in exile in England
1598 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. He was the founder of the Cecil dynasty which has produced many politicians including two Prime Ministers
1612 Hugh Broughton an English scholar and theologian.
1639 Juan Ruiz de Alarcón born in New Spain.
1699 Maria Sophia of Neuburg queen of Portugal as the wife of King Peter II from 1687 until her death in 1699. A popular queen, she was noted for her extraordinary generosity and for being the mother of the famously extravagant John V of Portugal
1709 Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and wife of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate.
1718 René Lepage de Sainte-Claire the lord-founder of the town of Rimouski, province of Quebec, in Canada.
1727 Victor-Maurice comte de Broglie a French soldier and general.
1741 Andrew Hamilton (lawyer) a Scottish lawyer in the Thirteen Colonies, where he finally settled in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was best known for his legal victory on behalf of the printer and newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger. This 1735 decision in New York helped to establish that truth is a defense to an accusation of libel. His eloquent defense concluded with saying that the press has "a liberty both of exposing and opposing tyrannical power by speaking and writing truth."
1743 Charles Emil Lewenhaupt a Swedish general.
1753 Gottfried Silbermann a German builder of keyboard instruments. He built harpsichords, clavichords, organs, and fortepianos; his modern reputation rests mainly on the latter two
1778 Pierre de Rigaud Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial a Canadien-born colonial governor of Canada in North America. He was governor of French Louisiana and in 1755 became the last Governor-General of New France. In 1759 and 1760 the British conquered the colony in the Seven Years' War
1792 John Burgoyne a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, most notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762
1795 Francisco Bayeu y Subías an Aragonese painter, active in a Neoclassic style, whose main subjects were religious and historical themes.
1795 Timothy Ruggles an American military leader, jurist and politician. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765
1799 John Bacon (sculptor) a British sculptor.
1804 Adam Duncan 1st Viscount Duncan a British admiral who defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown on 11 October 1797. This victory was considered one of the most significant actions in naval history
1812 Georg Simon Klügel a German mathematician and physicist.
1816 François-André Vincent a French neoclassical painter.
1822 Kristjan Jaak Peterson an Estonian poet, commonly regarded as a herald of Estonian national literature and the founder of modern Estonian poetry. His literary career was cut short by the tuberculosis that killed him at the age of 21. His birthday on March 14 is celebrated in Estonia as the Mother Tongue Day
1825 Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts a Belgian-born lawyer who became Minister of Justice in France during the French Revolution. Later he was a deputy from 1819 to 1824
1826 Jean-Jacques Paulet a French mycologist.
1828 Félix Avelar Brotero a Portuguese botanist and professor. He fled to France in 1788 to escape persecution by the Portuguese Inquisition, and there published his Compendio de Botanica in order to earn his living. It immediately established his reputation as a botanist, and upon his return to Portugal in 1790 he was given the chair of botany and agriculture at the University of Coimbra. His two best known works, Flora lusitanica, 1804, and Phytographia Lusitaniae selectior, 1816–1827, were the first lengthy descriptions of native Portuguese plants. As director of the botanical gardens at Coimbra and Ajuda , he reorganized and enlarged them
1844 Jacob Aall a Norwegian politician, historian, landowner and government economist.
1849 Anita Garibaldi the Brazilian wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi. Their partnership epitomized the spirit of the 19th century's age of romanticism and revolutionary liberalism
1859 John Vianney venerated in the Catholic Church as a saint and as the patron saint of all priests. He is often referred to as the "Curé d'Ars". He became internationally notable for his priestly and pastoral work in his parish because of the radical spiritual transformation of the community and its surroundings. Catholics attribute this to his saintly life, mortification, his persevering ministry in the sacrament of confession, and his ardent devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and to Saint Philomena
1864 David Hansemann a Prussian politician and banker, serving as the Prussian Minister of Finance in 1848.
1865 Pendleton Murrah the tenth Governor of Texas. His term in office coincided with the American Civil War
1873 Viktor Hartmann a Russian architect and painter. He was associated with the Abramtsevo Colony, purchased and preserved beginning in 1870 by Savva Mamontov, and the Russian Revival
1874 Otto Hesse a German mathematician. Hesse was born in Königsberg, Prussia, and died in Munich, Bavaria. He worked on algebraic invariants. The Hessian matrix, the Hesse normal form, the Hesse configuration, the Hessian group, Hessian pairs, Hesse's theorem, and the Hesse pencil are named after him
1875 Hans Christian Andersen a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children; his stories, called eventyr in Danish, or "fairy-tales" in English, express themes that transcend age and nationality