Born on August 5

79 Tullia Ciceronis the only daughter and first child to Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero from his first marriage to Terentia. Her younger brother was Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor , a consul of 30 BC
1103 William Adelin the son of Henry I of England by his wife Matilda of Scotland, and was thus heir-apparent to the throne. His early death without issue caused a succession crisis, known in history as The Anarchy
1301 Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl of Kent the son of Edward I of England, and a younger half-brother of Edward Edward I had intended to make substantial grants of land to Edmund, but when the king died in 1307, Edward II failed to follow through on his father's intentions, much due to his favouritism towards Piers Gaveston. Edmund still remained loyal to his brother, and in 1321 he was created Earl of Kent. He played an important part in Edward's administration, acting both as diplomat and military commander, and in 1321–22 helped suppress a rebellion against the king
1461 Alexander Jagiellon the Grand Duke of Lithuania and later also King of Poland. He was the fourth son of Casimir IV Jagiellon. He was elected Grand Duke of Lithuania on the death of his father , and King of Poland on the death of his brother John I Albert
1490 Andrey of Staritsa the youngest son of Ivan the Great by Sophia of Byzantium. Since 1519, his appanages included Volokolamsk and Staritsa
1540 Joseph Justus Scaliger a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the end of his life in the Netherlands
1578 Charles d'Albert duc de Luynes a favourite of Louis XIII, by whom he was made a Peer of France and Constable of France before dying at the height of his influence.
1623 Antonio Cesti also a singer , and organist. He was "the most celebrated Italian musician of his generation"
1631 Adam Adamandy Kochański a Polish mathematician.
1658 Claude Audran III a French painter.
1662 James Anderson (lawyer) born at Edinburgh.
1663 Charles-Armand de Gontaut duc de Biron a French military leader who served with distinction under Louis XIV and Louis XV, and was made a Marshal of France by the latter.
1681 Vitus Bering a Danish explorer and officer in the Russian Navy. He is known for his two explorations of the north-eastern coast of the Asian continent and from there the western coast on the North American continent. The Bering Strait, the Bering Sea, Bering Island, the Bering Glacier and the Bering Land Bridge have since all been named in his honour
1691 Charles d'Orléans de Rothelin a French churchman, writer, scholar, numismatist and theologian.
1694 Leonardo Leo a Neapolitan Baroque composer.
1737 Johann Friedrich Struensee a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government. He rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused scandal, especially after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, and was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. He died unmarried
1749 Thomas Lynch Jr. a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of South Carolina; his father was unable to sign the Declaration of Independence because of illness.
1758 Emperor Go-Momozono the 118th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1787 Carl Joseph Anton Mittermaier a German jurist.
1797 Friedrich August Kummer a violoncellist, pedagogue, and composer.
1800 Ramón María Narváez 1st Duke of Valencia a Spanish soldier and statesman.
1802 Niels Henrik Abel a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields. His most famous single result is the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation in radicals. This question was one of the outstanding open problems of his day, and had been unresolved for 250 years. He was also an innovator in the field of elliptic functions, discoverer of Abelian functions. Despite his achievements, Abel was largely unrecognized during his lifetime; he made his discoveries while living in poverty and died at the age of 26
1802 Eliakim Carmoly a French-Jewish scholar. He was born at Soultz-Haut-Rhin, then in the French department of Haut-Rhin. His real name was Goschel David Behr ; the name Carmoly, borne by his family in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, was adopted by him when quite young. He studied Hebrew and Talmud at Colmar; and, because both French and German were spoken in his native town, he became proficient in those languages
1811 Ambroise Thomas a French composer, best known for his operas Mignon and Hamlet and as Director of the Conservatoire de Paris from 1871 till his death.
1813 Ivar Aasen a Norwegian philologist, lexicographer, playwright and poet. He is best known for having created one of Norway's official languages, Nynorsk
1815 Edward John Eyre an English land explorer of the Australian continent, colonial administrator, and a controversial Governor of Jamaica.
1826 Andreas Aagesen a Danish jurist.
1826 İbrahim Şinasi a pioneering Ottoman author, journalist, and translator, and newspaper editor. He was the innovator of several fields: he wrote one of the earliest examples of an Ottoman play, he encouraged the trend of translating poetry from French into Turkish, he simplified the Arabic script used for writing the Ottoman Turkish language, and he was one of the first of the Ottoman writers to write specifically for the broader public. Şinasi used his newspapers, Tercüman-ı Ahvâl and Tasvir-i Efkâr, to promote the proliferation of European Enlightenment ideals during the Tanzimat period, and he made the education of the literate Ottoman public his personal vocation. Though many of Şinasi's projects were incomplete at the time of his death, "he was at the forefront of a number of fields and put his stamp on the development of each field so long as it contained unsolved problems."
1827 Deodoro da Fonseca Marshal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca became the first president of the Republic of Brazil after heading a military coup that deposed Emperor Pedro II and proclaimed the Republic in 1889, dis-establishing the Empire of Brazil.
1827 Marian Langiewicz a Polish patriot notable as a military leader of the January Uprising in 1863.
1828 Louise of the Netherlands the Queen of Sweden and Norway as spouse of King Charles XV of Sweden and IV of Norway.
1833 Carola of Vasa a titular princess of Sweden, and the queen consort of Saxony. She was the last Queen of Saxony
1834 Ewald Hering a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements. He proposed opponent color theory in 1892
1835 Conrad Kohrs a Montana cattle rancher and politician.
1836 Katō Hiroyuki an academic and politician of the Meiji period Japan.
1837 Anna Filosofova a Russian philanthropist and feminist. She was an important charity organiser, and, alongside Maria Trubnikova and Nadezhda Stasova , was one of the founders and leaders of the first organised Russian women's movement
1843 James Scott Skinner a Scottish dancing master, violinist, fiddler, and composer.
1844 Ludomir Benedyktowicz a Polish painter.
1844 Ilya Repin a Russian realist painter. He was the most renowned Russian artist of the 19th century, when his position in the world of art was comparable to that of Leo Tolstoy in literature. He played a major role in bringing Russian art into the mainstream of European culture. His major works include Barge Haulers on the Volga , Religious Procession in Kursk Province and Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
1846 Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow an Austrian physiologist and physician who became known for his important investigations on the electrical activity of nerves and the brain. He was also a creative inventor of new devices which were widely adopted in clinical medicine and physiological research
1847 Andrey Selivanov a Russian politician and general notable for capturing Przemyśl during World War I.
1850 Guy de Maupassant a popular French writer, considered one of the fathers of the modern short story and one of the form's finest exponents.
1852 Infanta Maria das Neves of Portugal the eldest child and daughter of exiled Miguel of Portugal and his wife Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.
1855 Alfredo Capelli an Italian mathematician who discovered Capelli's identity.
1858 Harry Siddons Mowbray an American artist.
1859 Axel Londen a Finnish sports shooter who competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics.
1860 Louis Wain an English artist best known for his drawings, which consistently featured anthropomorphised large-eyed cats and kittens. In his later years he may have suffered from schizophrenia , which, according to some psychiatrists, can be seen in his works
1862 Joseph Merrick an English man with severe deformities who was exhibited as a human curiosity named the Elephant Man. He became well known in London society after he went to live at the London Hospital. Merrick was born in Leicester, Leicestershire and began to develop abnormally during the first few years of his life. His skin appeared thick and lumpy, he developed an enlargement of his lips, and a bony lump grew on his forehead. One of his arms and both feet became enlarged and at some point during his childhood he fell and damaged his hip, resulting in permanent lameness. When he was 10, his mother died and his father soon remarried. Merrick left school at 13, and had difficulty finding employment. Rejected by his father and stepmother, he left home. In late 1879, aged 17, Merrick entered the Leicester Union Workhouse
1864 Evgeny Chirikov a Russian novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, and publicist.
1865 Robert Bevan an English painter, draughtsman and lithographer. He was a founding member of the Camden Town Group, the London Group, and the Cumberland Market Group