Born on August 6

1180 Emperor Go-Toba the 82nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1183 through 1198
1504 Matthew Parker Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575. He was also an influential theologian and arguably the co-founder of a distinctive tradition of Anglican theological thought
1560 Antoine Arnauld (lawyer) a famous lawyer in the Parlement de Paris, and a Counsellor of State under Henry A skilled orator, his most famous speech was in 1594 in favor of the University of Paris and against the Jesuits, decrying their lack of support for Henry IV, newly converted from Protestantism to Catholicism. He wrote a number of political pamphlets which were widely distributed. The best known of his writings is entitled Le franc et véritable discours du Roi sur le rétablissement qui lui est demandé des Jésuites. He was married to Catherine Marion de Druy and had twenty children by her, ten of whom survived him
1572 Fakhr-al-Din II a Druze prince and an early leader of the Emirate of Chouf, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries. Son of Prince Qorqmaz ibn Maan and Sit Nasab of the Tanukhi family, he was given the title "Emir" or Prince in Arabic because the Maan family was pre-eminent in the Shouf and, periodically, a larger area. He is often referred to as "Fakhr ad-Din II" because of his grandfather Fakhr ad-Din He and members of his family were from time to time appointed Sanjakbeyi or governor/tax-farmer of districts like Sidon or Beirut. His period was characterized by economic and cultural prosperity, and he had fought other Lebanese families to unite the people of Lebanon and seek independence from the Ottoman Empire. He is therefore considered by some to be the first "Man of Lebanon" to seek the sovereignty of modern-day Lebanon. Others consider this to be anachronistic as his aims were more dynastic than national. However, the Ottomans eventually tired of this troublesome vassal. Sultan Murad IV had him executed with one or two of his sons on April 13, 1635
1605 Bulstrode Whitelocke an English lawyer, writer, parliamentarian and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England.
1609 Richard Bennett (Governor) an English Governor of the Colony of Virginia.
1619 Barbara Strozzi an Italian Baroque singer and composer.
1638 Nicolas Malebranche Cong. Orat. , was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher. In his works, he sought to synthesize the thought of Augustine and Descartes, in order to demonstrate the active role of God in every aspect of the world. Malebranche is best known for his doctrines of Vision in God and Occasionalism
1644 Louise de La Vallière a mistress of Louis XIV of France from 1661 to 1667. She later became the Duchess of La Vallière and Duchess of Vaujours in her own right. Unlike her rival, Madame de Montespan, she has no surviving descendants. Louise was also very religious and she led a religious penance for herself near the end of her life
1644 Christian Ernst Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
1651 François Fénelon a French Roman Catholic archbishop, theologian, poet and writer. He today is remembered mostly as the author of The Adventures of Telemachus, first published in 1699
1651 Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld a Swedish Field Marshal under the command of King Karl XII of Sweden. Despite being choleric and irritable, Rehnskiöld's military skills made him the chief military advisor and second-in-command to King Karl and earned him the epithet the "Parmenio of the Northern Alexander."
1656 Claude de Forbin a French naval commander. In 1685-1688 he was on a diplomatic mission to Siam. He became governor of Bangkok and a general in the Siamese army, and left Siam shortly before King Narai fell ill and was deposed by a Coup d'état
1666 Maria Sophia of Neuburg queen of Portugal as the wife of King Peter II from 1687 until her death in 1699. A popular queen, she was noted for her extraordinary generosity and for being the mother of the famously extravagant John V of Portugal
1667 Johann Bernoulli a Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is known for his contributions to infinitesimal calculus and educating Leonhard Euler in the pupil's youth
1673 Henry FitzJames the illegitimate son of King James II of England and VII of Scotland by Arabella Churchill, sister of the Duke of Marlborough.
1681 Francis Fasani Anthony Fasani, O.F.M. Conv. was an Italian friar of the Order of Conventual Friars Minor who has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
1697 Charles VII Holy Roman Emperor Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was notably the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries
1713 Marie Sophie de Courcillon a French noblewoman and Duchess of Rohan-Rohan as well as Princess of Soubise by marriage. She was the grand daughter of Philippe de Courcillon, better known as the marquis de Dangeau. She was praised for being a cultured woman for the age and held a fashionable salon at the Hôtel de Soubise in Paris. She was painted by Nattier
1715 Luc de Clapiers marquis de Vauvenargues a minor French writer, a moralist. He died at age 31, in broken health, having published the year prior—anonymously—a collection of essays and aphorisms with the encouragement of Voltaire, his friend. He first received public notice under his own name in 1797, and from 1857 on, his aphorisms became popular. In the history of French literature, his significance lies chiefly in his friendship with Voltaire
1725 Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin heir to the Dukedom of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1756 to his death. He was also the father of the first Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Frederick Francis I
1751 Matvei Platov a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic wars and founded Novocherkassk as the new capital of the Don Host Province.
1752 Princess Louise of Saxe-Meiningen a Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen by birth and by marriage Landgravine of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.
1753 François Levaillant a French author, explorer, naturalist, zoological collector, and noted ornithologist. He described many new species of birds based on collection he made in Africa and several birds are named after him. He was among the first to use colour plates for illustrating birds and opposed the use of binomial nomenclature introduced by Linnaeus, preferring instead to use descriptive French names such as the bateleur for the distinctive African eagle
1756 Salvador Fidalgo a Spanish explorer who commanded an exploring expedition for Spain to Alaska and the Pacific Northwest during the late 18th century.
1763 Yakov Kulnev Petrovich Kulnev was, along with Pyotr Bagration and Aleksey Yermolov, one of the most popular Russian military leaders at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. Suvorov's admirer and participant of 55 battles, he lost his life during Napoleon's invasion of Russia
1765 Petros Mavromichalis the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century. His family had a long history of revolts against the Ottoman Empire, which ruled most of what is now Greece. His grandfather Georgios and his father Pierros were among the leaders of the Orlov Revolt
1766 William Hyde Wollaston famous for discovering two chemical elements; he also developed a way to process platinum ore into malleable ingots.
1768 Jean-Baptiste Bessières a Marshal of France of the Napoleonic Era. His younger brother, Bertrand, followed in his footsteps and eventually became a Divisional General. Their cousin, Géraud-Pierre-Henri-Julien also served Napoleon I as a diplomat and Imperial official
1775 Louis Antoine Duke of Angoulême the eldest son of Charles X of France and, from 1824 to 1830, the last Dauphin of France. Due to his father's abdication during the July Revolution in 1830, he never reigned over France but after his father's death in 1836 he was the legitimist pretender as Louis XIX
1775 Daniel O'Connell an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century. He campaigned for Catholic Emancipation—including the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Act of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland
1777 Georges Louis Duvernoy a French zoologist. He assisted Georges Cuvier in writing Leçons d'anatomie comparée. He was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1847 and a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1851
1785 Johann Andreas Schmeller a German philologist who initially studied the Bavarian dialect. From 1828 until his death he taught in the University of Munich. He is considered the founder of modern dialect research in Germany. His lasting contribution is the four-volume Bayerisches Wörterbuch , which is currently in the process of revision by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities
1789 Friedrich List a leading 19th-century German-American economist who developed the "National System" or what some would call today the National System of Innovation. He was a forefather of the German historical school of economics, and considered the original European unity theorist whose ideas were the basis for the European Economic Community
1795 Heinrich Rose a German mineralogist and analytical chemist. He was the brother of the mineralogist Gustav Rose and a son of Valentin Rose
1808 Johann Christian Gebauer a Danish composer, organist and music theorist.
1809 Alfred Lord Tennyson Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
1810 Giorgio Ronconi an Italian operatic baritone celebrated for his brilliant acting and compelling stage presence. In 1842, he created the title-role in Giuseppe Verdi's Nabucco at La Scala, Milan
1815 Benjamin Herschel Babbage an English engineer, scientist, explorer and politician, best known for his work in the colony of South Australia. He invariably signed his name "B. Herschel Babbage" and was frequently referred to as "Herschel Babbage"
1824 William Palmer (murderer) an English doctor found guilty of murder in one of the most notorious cases of the 19th century. Charles Dickens called Palmer "the greatest villain that ever stood in the Old Bailey"
1826 Thomas Alexander Browne an author, who sometimes published under the pseudonym Rolf Boldrewood. He is best known for his novel Robbery Under Arms
1828 Andrew Taylor Still the founder of osteopathy and osteopathic medicine. He was also a physician and surgeon, author, inventor and Kansas territorial and state legislator. He was one of the founders of Baker University, the oldest four-year college in the state of Kansas, and was the founder of the American School of Osteopathy , the world's first osteopathic medical school, in Kirksville, Missouri
1832 Khurshidbanu Natavan considered one of the best lyrical poets of Azerbaijan whose poems are in Persian and Azerbaijani. Daughter of Mehdigulu Khan, the last ruler of the Karabakh khanate , Natavan was most notable for her lyrical ghazals
1834 Arthur Pougin a French musical and dramatic critic and writer. He was born at Châteauroux and studied music at the Paris Conservatory under Alard and Reber. In 1855 he became conductor at the Théatre Beaumarchais. and afterward leader at Musard's concerts, subconductor at the Folies-Nouvelles, and from 1860 to 1863 he was first violin at the Opéra-Comique. He was in turn feuilletoniste to Le Soir, La Tribune, L'Evénement and Le Journal Officiel, besides being a frequent contributor to all the important French musical periodicals. His work in connection with Fétis's Biographie universelle, for which he prepared a supplement , has, however, been found to be lacking in thoroughness. He edited the new edition of Clément and Larousse's Dictionnaire lyrique
1835 Friedrich zu Limburg-Stirum a German diplomat and politician who served as acting Foreign Secretary and head of the Foreign Office from September 1880 to 25 June 1881. Having until then served as Deputy Secretary of State in the Foreign Office, he was appointed as Foreign Secretary after Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst resigned from this position. He was subsequently succeeded by Clemens Busch as acting Secretary
1835 Jewett W. Adams an American politician. He was the fourth Governor of Nevada. He was a member of the Democratic Party
1837 Tsuda Sen a politician, educator and writer in Meiji period Japan. He was one of the founders of Aoyama Gakuin university, and the father of noted author Tsuda Umeko
1838 José Cos y Macho a Spanish Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Valladolid from 1901 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1911.
1840 Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier named.
1843 Princess Augusta of Saxe-Meiningen the daughter of Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and his wife Princess Marie Frederica of Hesse-Kassel. She was the mother of Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg