Born on August 7

317 Constantius II Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death
1282 Elizabeth of Rhuddlan the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother King Edward II, as they were only two years apart in age
1488 Caspar Aquila a German reformer.
1533 Valentin Weigel a German theologian, philosopher and mystical writer, from Saxony, and an important precursor of later theosophy. In English he is often called Valentine Weigel
1533 Alonso de Ercilla a Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Ocaña. While in Chile he fought against the Araucanians , and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems. This heroic work in 37 cantos is divided into three parts, published in 1569, 1578, and 1589. It tells of the courageous insurrection of the Araucanians and also relates the history of Chile and of contemporary Spain
1560 Elizabeth Báthory a countess from the renowned Báthory family of nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary. She has been labelled the most prolific female serial killer in history, though the precise number of her victims is debated. Báthory and four collaborators were accused of torturing and killing hundreds of girls between 1585 and 1610. The highest number of victims cited during Báthory's trial was 650. However, this number comes from the claim by a woman named Susannah that Jacob Szilvássy, Countess Báthory's court official, had seen the figure in one of Báthory's private books. The book was never revealed, and Szilvássy never mentioned it in his testimony. Despite the evidence against Elizabeth, her family's influence kept her from facing trial. She was imprisoned in December 1610 within Csejte Castle, Upper Hungary, now in Slovakia, where she remained immured in a set of rooms until her death four years later
1571 Thomas Lupo the elder an English composer and viol player of the late Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Along with Orlando Gibbons, John Coprario, and Alfonso Ferrabosco, he was one of the principal developers of the repertory for viol consort
1574 Robert Dudley (explorer) an English explorer and cartographer. In 1594, he led an expedition to the West Indies, of which he wrote an account. The illegitimate son of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, he inherited the bulk of the Earl's estate in accordance with his father's will, including Kenilworth Castle. In 1603–1605 he tried unsuccessfully to establish his legitimacy in court. After that he left England forever, finding a new existence in the service of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany. There he worked as an engineer and shipbuilder and designed and published Dell'Arcano del Mare, the first maritime atlas to cover the whole world. He was also a skilled navigator and mathematician. In Italy he styled himself "Earl of Warwick and Leicester", as well as "Duke of Northumberland", a title recognized by the Emperor Ferdinand II
1590 Charles of Austria Bishop of Wroclaw Prince-Bishop of Wrocław, Bishop of Brixen and Grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights.
1598 Georg Stiernhielm a Swedish civil servant, linguist and poet.
1649 Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria an Archduke of Austria and Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. He was also the bishop of Olmütz, and Breslau, Passau
1650 Louis Joseph Duke of Guise the only son of Louis, Duke of Joyeuse and Marie Françoise de Valois, the only daughter of the Count of Alès, Governor of Provence and son of Charles de Valois Duke of Angoulême, a bastard of Charles IX of France.
1679 Benedetto Erba Odescalchi an Italian Cardinal and Archbishop of Milan from 1712 to 1736.
1726 James Bowdoin an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution. He served in both branches of the Massachusetts General Court from the 1750s to the 1770s. Although he was initially supportive of the royal governors, he opposed British colonial policy and eventually became an influential advocate of independence. He authored a highly political report on the 1770 Boston Massacre that has been described by historian Francis Walett as one of the most influential pieces of writing that shaped public opinion in the colonies
1734 Duchess Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria a Duchess of Bavaria by birth and Margravine of Baden-Baden by marriage. She was nicknamed the savior of Bavaria. She is also known as Maria Josepha and is sometimes styled as a princess of Bavaria
1742 Nathanael Greene a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer. Many places in the United States are named for him. Greene suffered financial difficulties in the post-war years and died suddenly of sunstroke in 1786
1751 Wilhelmina of Prussia Princess of Orange the consort of William V of Orange and the de facto leader of the dynastic party and ounter-revolution in the Netherlands. She was the daughter of Prince Augustus William of Prussia and Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Wilhelmina was the longest serving Princess consort of Orange
1779 Carl Ritter a German geographer. Along with Alexander von Humboldt, he is considered one of the founders of modern geography. From 1825 until his death, he occupied the first chair in geography at the University of Berlin
1779 Louis de Freycinet a French navigator. He circumnavigated the earth, and in 1811 published the first map to show a full outline of the coastline of Australia
1779 John By a British military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and, in the process, founded Bytown, that would become the city of Ottawa.
1783 Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom a member of the British Royal Family. She was the youngest daughter and child of King George III of the United Kingdom and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
1791 Adolf Ivar Arwidsson a Finnish political journalist, writer and historian. His writing is critical of Finland's status at the time as a Grand Duchy under the Russian Tsars. His writing activity cost him his job as a lecturer at The Royal Academy of Turku and he had to emigrate to Sweden, where he continued his political activity. The Finnish national movement considered Arwidsson the mastermind of an independent Finland
1795 Athanase Laurent Charles Coquerel a French Protestant theologian, born in Paris, elected deputy of the Constituent Assembly after the revolution of February 1848.
1804 Johan Nicolai Madvig a Danish philologist and Kultus Minister.
1819 Panteleimon Kulish a Ukrainian writer, critic, poet, folklorist, and translator.
1819 Ion Emanuel Florescu a Romanian army general who served as Prime Minister of Romania for a short time in a provisional government in 1876 and then in 1891.
1820 Oktawiusz Radoszkowski a Polish entomologist who specialised in Hymenoptera and worked in the Russian Empire.
1822 Maria Kalergis a countess, Polish pianist and patron of the arts.
1831 Frederic Farrar a cleric of the Church of England , schoolteacher and author.
1832 Julius Epstein (pianist) a Croatian Jewish pianist.
1832 Max Lange a German chess player and problem composer.
1836 Evander M. Law an author, teacher, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
1844 Auguste Michel-Lévy a French geologist. He was born in Paris
1844 Hugo Kauffmann a German painter, the son of Hermann Kauffmann.
1846 Hermann Paul a German linguist and lexicographer.
1854 Nikolai Reitsenstein a career naval officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, noted for his at the Battle of the Yellow Sea in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.
1856 Kajetan Abgarowicz a Polish journalist, novelist and short story writer of Armenian descent.
1859 Fyodor Schechtel a Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer, the most influential and prolific master of Russian Art Nouveau and late Russian Revival.
1860 Carl Anton Larsen a Norwegian-British Antarctic Explorer, who made important contributions to the exploration of Antarctica, the most significant being the first discovery of fossils, for which he received the Back Grant from the Royal Geographical Society. In December 1893 he became the first person to ski in Antarctica on the Larsen Ice Shelf which was subsequently named after him. Larsen is considered the founder of the Antarctic whaling industry and the settlement at Grytviken on the British-administered island of South Georgia. In 1910, after some years' residence on South Georgia, he took British citizenship. The Norwegian whale factory ship C.A. Larsen was named after him
1860 Alan Leo a prominent British astrologer, author, publisher and theosophist. He is often referred to as "the father of modern astrology"
1862 Victoria of Baden the Queen of Sweden by her marriage to King Gustaf She was politically active in a conservative fashion during the development of democracy and known as a pro-German during the First World War.
1862 Henri Le Sidaner an intimist painter born to a French family in Port Louis, Mauritius. In 1870 he and his family settled in Dunkirk. Le Sidaner received most of his tutelage from the École des Beaux-Arts under the instruction of Alexandre Cabanel but later broke away due to artistic differences
1863 Scipione Riva-Rocci an Italian internist and pediatrician who was a native of Almese.
1865 Micha Josef Berdyczewski a Ukrainian-born writer of Hebrew, a journalist, and a scholar. He appealed for the Jews to change their way of thinking, freeing themselves from dogmas ruling the Jewish religion, tradition and history, but is also known for his work with pre-modern Jewish myths and legends. He wrote in Hebrew, Yiddish and German and has been described as "the first Hebrew writer living in Berlin to be revered in the world of German letters"
1867 Emil Nolde a German Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and is considered to be one of the great oil painting and watercolor painters of the 20th century. He is known for his vigorous brushwork and expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear frequently in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones. His watercolors include vivid, brooding storm-scapes and brilliant florals
1868 Ladislaus Bortkiewicz Russian economist and statistician of Polish ancestry, who lived most of his professional life in Germany, where he taught at Strassburg University and Berlin University.
1870 Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Georg Friedrich Maria Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, nicknamed "Taffi", ran the German Friedrich Krupp AG heavy industry conglomerate from 1909 until 1941. He was indicted for prosecution at the 1945 Nuremberg trials, but the charges were dropped because of his failing health
1870 Philip Herbert Cowell a British astronomer.
1871 Abanindranath Tagore the principal artist and creator of 'Indian Society of Oriental Art' and the first major exponent of swadeshi values in Indian art, thereby founding the influential Bengal school of art, which led to the development of modern Indian painting He was also a noted writer, particularly for children. Popularly known as 'Aban Thakur', his books Rajkahini, Budo Angla, Nalak, and Khirer Putul are landmarks in Bengali language children's literature
1873 Dmitry Abramovich a Soviet historian and writer.