Born on August 8

1078 Emperor Horikawa the 73rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1356 Giovanni Gradenigo the fifty-sixth Doge of Venice, appointed on April 21, 1355. During his reign, Venice signed a peace with Genoa
1605 Cecil Calvert 2nd Baron Baltimore an English peer who was the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and the colony of Avalon. His title was "Cecil Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore, First Lord Proprietary, Earl Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". He received the proprietorship after the death of his father, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, , for whom it was intended. Cecil Calvert established and managed the Province of Maryland from his home, Kiplin Hall, in North Yorkshire, England. As an English Roman Catholic, he continued the legacy of his father by promoting religious tolerance in the colony
1640 Amalia Catharina a German poet and composer. She was born in Arolsen to Count Philipp Theodor von Waldeck and the Countess of Nassau. In 1664 she married Count Georg Ludwig von Erbach. She published a number of Pietist poems and songs in Hildburghausen in 1692. They were meant for private household devotion. There were 67 poems, some of which had simple melodies and a figured bass
1646 Godfrey Kneller the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George His major works include The Chinese Convert ; a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "Kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
1661 Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg a German aristocrat and general of Brandenburg-Prussian descent who served in the Saxon and Venetian armies in the early 18th century and found a second career in retirement in Venice, as a grand collector and patron. His sister was Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal. His father was Gustavus Adolphus Baron von der Schulenberg
1673 John Ker a Scottish spy during the Jacobite risings.
1686 Wenzel Lorenz Reiner a Baroque painter who lived and died in Prague, Bohemia.
1693 Laurent Belissen a French Baroque composer. He was born in Aix-en-Provence and may have been among the last students of Guillaume Poitevin, then maître de musique at the choir school of the Aix Cathedral
1694 Francis Hutcheson (philosopher) The Rev. Francis Hutcheson was a Scottish-Irish philosopher born in Ireland to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment
1705 Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff a Dutch colonial administrator for the Dutch East India Company. He served as Governor of Ceylon from 1736 to 1740 and as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1743 until his death in 1750
1709 Tokugawa Ietsugu the seventh shogun of the Tokugawa Dynasty, who ruled from 1713 until his death in 1716. He was the son of Tokugawa Ienobu, thus making him the grandson of Tokugawa Tsunashige, daimyo of Kofu, great-grandson of Tokugawa Iemitsu, great-great grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and finally the great-great-great grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu
1709 Johann Georg Gmelin a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.
1709 Ernst Ludwig II Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
1709 Hermann Anton Gelinek a German monk and musician.
1720 Carl Fredrik Pechlin a Swedish politician and demagogue, son of the Holstein minister at Stockholm, Johan Pechlin, and brother of Johanna Lohm. After moving to Sweden at age six, he was educated in Sweden, and entered the Swedish army. He rose to the rank of major-general, but became famous by being the type par excellence of the corrupt and egoistic Swedish parliamentarian of the final period of the Age of Liberty; he received for many years the sobriquet of 'General of the Riksdag'
1732 Johann Christoph Adelung a German grammarian and philologist.
1734 Frederick Augustus Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst a German prince of the House of Ascania and the last ruler of the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
1746 Hieronymus van Alphen especially remembered as a poet, particularly for his poems for children under the title Kleine gedigten voor kinderen.
1748 Johann Friedrich Gmelin a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist and malacologist.
1754 Hipólito Ruiz López a Spanish botanist known for researching the floras of Peru and Chile during an expedition under Carlos III from 1777 to 1788. During the reign of Carlos III, three major botanical expeditions were sent to the New World; Ruiz and José Antonio Pavón Jiménez were the botanists for the first of these expeditions, to Peru and Chile
1754 Luigi Marchesi an Italian castrato singer, one of the most prominent and charismatic to appear in Europe during the second half of the eighteenth century.
1768 Karl Georg Albrecht Ernst von Hake a Prussian general and Minister of War.
1768 Johann Gottfried Langermann a German psychiatrist and administrator born in Maxen, near Dresden.
1771 Ernest Constantine Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal a member of the House of Hesse and Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal from 1816 until his death.
1786 Bengt Erland Fogelberg a Swedish sculptor.
1790 Ferenc Kölcsey a Hungarian poet, literary critic, orator, and politician, noted for his support of the liberal current inside the Habsburg Empire. He wrote the national anthem of Hungary in 1823
1795 José María Obando a Neogranadine General and politician who twice served as President of Colombia. As a General, he initially fought for the Royalist Army during the Independence Wars of Colombia, ultimately joining the revolutionary forces of Simón Bolívar towards the end, but once independence was attained he opposed Bolívar's Centralist government
1797 Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury a French painter.
1799 Nathaniel Palmer an American seal hunter, explorer, sailing captain, and ship designer. He was born in Stonington, Connecticut
1802 Germain Henri Hess a Swiss-born Russian chemist and doctor who formulated Hess's law, an early principle of thermochemistry.
1806 Eugène Giraud a French painter and engraver. He painted one of the best known portraits of writer Gustave Flaubert. He won many awards and honors in recognition for his work
1807 Emilie Flygare-Carlén a Swedish novelist.
1809 Ljudevit Gaj a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement
1814 Esther Hobart Morris Slack, JP , was the first female Justice of the Peace in the United States. A mother of three boys, she began her tenure as justice in South Pass City, Wyoming, on February 14, 1870, and served a term of less than nine months. The Sweetwater County Board of County Commissioners appointed Morris as justice of the peace after the previous justice, S. Barr, resigned in protest of Wyoming Territory's passage of the women's suffrage amendment in December 1869
1816 Filippo Parlatore an Italian botanist.
1818 Joseph Roumanille a Provençal poet. He was born at Saint-Rémy-de-Provence , and is commonly known in southern France as the father of the Félibrige, for he first conceived the idea of raising his regional language to the dignity of a literary language
1820 Julius Stern a Jewish-German musical pedagogue and composer.
1822 George Stoneman a United States Army cavalry officer, trained at West Point, where his room-mate was the future "Stonewall" Jackson. In the Civil War, he became Adjutant to McClellan, who did not appreciate the use of centralised cavalry, and was therefore outperformed by the Confederates, who did
1824 Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse and by Rhine) born in Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy, and died in Saint Petersburg. The Mariinsky Theatre and the city Mariehamn in Åland are named after her
1829 Lucien-Anatole Prévost-Paradol a French journalist and essayist.
1831 Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1831–1891) the third son and sixth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna. He may also be referred to as Nicholas Nicolaievich the Elder to tell him apart from his son. Trained for the military, as a Field Marshal he commanded the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878
1834 Yuriy Fedkovych a Ukrainian writer, poet, folklorist and translator.
1835 James W. Forsyth a U.S. Army officer and general. He was primarily a Union staff officer during the American Civil War and cavalry regimental commander during the Indian Wars
1836 Johann Georg Noel Dragendorff a German pharmacist and chemist born in Rostock.
1839 Nelson A. Miles a United States soldier who served in the American Civil War, Indian Wars, and the Spanish-American War.
1839 Otto Finsch a German ethnographer, naturalist and colonial explorer.
1845 Prince Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha a German prince of the Koháry branch of the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and an imperial Brazilian Admiral.
1848 Pavle Jurišić Šturm a Serbian general of Sorbian origin who commanded the Serbian 3rd Army in World War I.
1849 Vera Zasulich a Russian Menshevik writer and revolutionary.