Born on August 9

378 Traianus (magister peditum) a Roman general under Emperor Valens with whom he died in the battle of Adrianople.
1122 Cuno of Praeneste a German Cardinal and papal legate, an influential diplomatic figure of the early 12th century, active in France and Germany.
1173 Najm ad-Din Ayyub a Kurdish soldier and politician from Dvin, and the father of Saladin. He is eponymous ancestor of the Ayyubid dynasty
1201 Arnold Fitz Thedmar a London chronicler and merchant; he was born in London.
1537 Francesco Barozzi an Italian mathematician, astronomer and humanist.
1544 Bogislaw XIII Duke of Pomerania a prince of Stettin and Wolgast, and a member of the Griffins.
1603 Johannes Cocceius a Dutch theologian born at Bremen.
1631 John Dryden an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made Poet Laureate in 1668.
1648 Johann Michael Bach a German composer of the Baroque period. He was the brother of Johann Christoph Bach, as well as father-in-law of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as the "Gehrener Bach" to distinguish him from the "Wuppertaler Bach", Johann Michael Bach
1653 John Oldham (poet) an English satirical poet and translator.
1663 Ferdinando de' Medici Grand Prince of Tuscany the eldest son of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise d'Orléans. Ferdinando was heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, with the title Grand Prince, from his father's accession in 1670 until his death in 1713. He is remembered today primarily as a patron of music. An excellent musician himself , he attracted top musicians to Florence and thus made it an important musical center. Through his patronage of Bartolomeo Cristofori, Ferdinando made possible the invention of the piano in 1700
1669 Eudoxia Lopukhina the first wife of Peter I of Russia. They married in 1689 but divorced in 1698. She is the mother of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich and the paternal grandmother of Peter II of Russia
1674 František Maxmilián Kaňka a Czech architect and builder.
1693 Princess Sophia Wilhelmina of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld by birth, and Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt by marriage.
1696 Joseph Wenzel I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1712 and 1718, 1732 and 1745, and 1748 and 1772.
1722 Prince Augustus William of Prussia Prince of Prussia and a brother of Frederick He was the second son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea.
1726 Francesco Cetti an Italian Jesuit priest, zoologist and mathematician.
1736 Louis Joseph Prince of Condé Prince of Condé from 1740 to his death. A member of the House of Bourbon, he held the prestigious rank of Prince du Sang
1757 Thomas Telford a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder. After establishing himself as an engineer of road and canal projects in Shropshire, he designed numerous infrastructure projects in his native Scotland, as well as harbours and tunnels. Such was his reputation as a prolific designer of highways and related bridges, he was dubbed The Colossus of Roads, and, reflecting his command of all types of civil engineering in the early 19th century, he was elected as the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a post he retained for 14 years until his death
1759 Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths especially known for his role in the development of physical education. He is thought of as the "grandfather of gymnastics" – the "father" being Turnvater Jahn. GutsMuths introduced systematic physical exercise into the school curriculum, and he developed the basic principles of artistic gymnastics
1760 James Ruse a Cornish farmer who, at the age of 23, was convicted of breaking and entering and was sentenced to seven years' transportation to Australia. He arrived at Sydney Cove on the First Fleet with 18 months of his sentence remaining. Ruse applied to Governor Arthur Phillip for a land grant, stating that he had been bred to farming. Governor Phillip, desperate to make the colony self-sufficient, allocated Ruse an allotment at Rose Hill , where he proved himself industrious and showed that it was possible for a family to survive through farming. Having done this, Ruse received a grant of 30 acres , enabling him eventually to sell 600 bushels of maize. This was the very first grant of land in New South Wales. Ruse later exchanged the grant for more fertile land on the Hawkesbury River. In later life, having been almost bankrupted from his farm by flooding, Ruse found work as a seaman and later as a landowner's overseer
1776 Amedeo Avogadro an Italian scientist. He is most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, including what is known as Avogadro's law. In tribute to him, the number of elementary entities in 1 mole of a substance, 6.02214179×1023, is known as the Avogadro constant, one of the seven SI base units and represented by NA
1781 Michael Umlauf an Austrian composer, conductor, and violinist. His father, Ignaz Umlauf, was also a notable composer. His sister Elisabeth Hölzel had a career as a contralto and her son Gustav Hölzel was an important bass-baritone
1783 Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia a daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and sister of Emperors Alexander I and Nicholas She became Archduchess of Austria upon her marriage to Archduke Joseph of Austria, Governor of Hungary.
1788 Adoniram Judson an American Congregationalist and later Baptist missionary, who served in Burma for almost forty years. At the age of 25, Adoniram Judson became the first Protestant missionary sent from North America to preach in Burma. His mission and work with Luther Rice led to the formation of the first Baptist association in America to support missionaries
1789 Nicolas-Charles Bochsa a musician and composer.
1792 Charles-François Lebœuf a French sculptor.
1794 Achille Valenciennes a French zoologist.
1797 Charles Robert Malden a nineteenth-century British naval officer, surveyor and educator. He is the discoverer of Malden Island in the central Pacific, which is named in his honour. He also founded Windlesham House School at Brighton, England
1798 Louis-Florentin Calmeil a French psychiatrist and medical historian born in Yversay.
1805 Joseph Locke a notable English civil engineer of the 19th century, particularly associated with railway projects. Locke ranked alongside Robert Stephenson and Isambard Kingdom Brunel as one of the major pioneers of railway development
1812 Victor von Bruns a German surgeon born in Helmstedt.
1819 William T. G. Morton an American dentist who first publicly demonstrated the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic in 1846. The promotion of his questionable claim to have been the discoverer of anesthesia became an obsession for the rest of his life
1822 Jacob Moleschott a Dutch physiologist and writer on dietetics. He is known for his philosophical views in regards to "scientific materialism"
1826 Adelaide Borghi-Mamo an Italian operatic mezzo-soprano who had an active international career from the 1840s through the 1880s. She was married to tenor Michele Mamo and their daughter, soprano Erminia Borghi-Mamo, also had a successful singing career
1828 Eduard Müller (sculptor) a German sculptor.
1831 Vasily Kurochkin a Russian satirical poet, journalist and translator.
1834 Manuel Pardo a Peruvian politician and the first civilian President of Peru.
1839 Karl Theodor Duke in Bavaria a member of the House of Wittelsbach and a professional oculist. He was the brother of the Empress Elisabeth of Austria, and father of Elisabeth of the Belgians
1839 Gaston Paris a French writer and scholar. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901, 1902 and 1903
1842 Nikolai Bibikov a general in the Imperial Russian Army.
1843 Adolf Mayer a German agricultural chemist whose work on tobacco mosaic disease played an important role in the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus and viruses in general.
1845 Xavier Mellery a Belgian Symbolist painter.
1845 André Bessette C.S.C. more commonly known as Brother André , and since his canonization as André of Montreal, was a lay brother of the Congregation of Holy Cross and a significant figure of the Roman Catholic Church among French-Canadians, credited with thousands of reported miraculous healings. He was declared venerable in 1978 and was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1982. Pope Benedict XVI approved the decree of sainthood for Blessed André on February 19, 2010, with the formal canonization taking place on October 17, 2010
1847 Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo an Italian noblewoman and was the Princess della Cisterna in her own right. Married to the Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta, a son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy she was later the queen of Spain from 1870 until her husband's abdication in 1873. She is an ancestress of the present Duke of Apulia, a claimant to the throne of Italy
1855 Jean Lorrain a French poet and novelist of the Symbolist school.
1861 Diego Manuel Chamorro the President of Nicaragua between 1 January 1921 and 12 October 1923. He belonged to the Conservative Party of Nicaragua and was a member of the politically powerful Chamorro family. His father was Pedro Joaquín Chamorro
1861 John William Godward an English painter from the end of the Pre-Raphaelite/Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema but his style of painting fell out of favour with the arrival of painters like Picasso. He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his suicide note that "the world was not big enough" for him and a Picasso
1863 Álvaro de Figueroa 1st Count of Romanones a Spanish politician. He was the Prime Minister of Spain three times between 1912 and 1918, president of the Senate and seventeen times minister. He belonged to the Liberal Party of Sagasta and Canalejas
1864 Roman Dmowski a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the right-wing National Democracy political movement. He saw the aggressive Germanization of Polish territories controlled by the German Empire as the major threat to Polish culture and therefore advocated a degree of accommodation with another power that had partitioned Poland, the Russian Empire. He favored the re-establishment of Polish independence by nonviolent means, and supported policies favorable to the Polish middle class. During World War I, in Paris, through his Polish National Committee he was a prominent spokesman, to the Allies, for Polish aspirations. He was a principal figure instrumental in the postwar restoration of Poland's independent existence