August 9 events in history

378 Gothic War: Battle of Adrianople – A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens is defeated by the Visigoths. Valens is killed along with over half of his army
1173 Construction of the campanile of the Cathedral of Pisa (now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa) begins; it will take two centuries to complete
1329 Quilon, the first Indian Christian Diocese, is erected by Pope John XXII; the French-born Jordanus is appointed the first Bishop
1483 Opening of the Sistine Chapel in Rome with the celebration of a Mass
1610 The First Anglo-Powhatan War begins in colonial Virginia
1810 Napoleon annexes Westphalia as part of the First French Empire
1814 Indian Wars: the Creek sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving up huge parts of Alabama and Georgia
1842 The Webster–Ashburton Treaty is signed, establishing the United States–Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains
1854 Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden
1862 American Civil War: Battle of Cedar Mountain – At Cedar Mountain, Virginia, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson narrowly defeats Union forces under General John Pope
1877 Indian Wars: Battle of Big Hole – A small band of Nez Percé Indians clash with the United States Army
1892 Thomas Edison receives a patent for a two-way telegraph
1902 Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1907 The first Boy Scout encampment concludes at Brownsea Island in southern England
1914 Start of the Battle of Mulhouse, part of a French attempt to recover the province of Alsace and the first French offensive of World War I
1925 A train robbery takes place in Kakori, near Lucknow, India
1930 Betty Boop makes her cartoon debut in Dizzy Dishes
1936 Summer Olympic Games: Games of the XI Olympiad – Jesse Owens wins his fourth gold medal at the games
1942 World War II: Battle of Savo Island – Allied naval forces protecting their amphibious forces during the initial stages of the Battle of Guadalcanal are surprised and defeated by an Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser force
1942 Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi is arrested in Bombay by British forces, launching the Quit India Movement
1944 Continuation War: The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive, the largest offensive launched by Soviet Union against Finland during the Second World War, ends to a strategic stalemate. Both Finnish and Soviet troops at the Finnish front dug to defensive positions, and the front remains stable until the end of the war
1944 The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time
1945 The Red Army invades Japanese-occupied Manchuria
1945 World War II: Nagasaki is devastated when an atomic bomb, Fat Man, is dropped by the United States B-29 Bockscar. 39,000 people are killed outright
1965 A fire at a Titan missile base near Searcy, Arkansas kills 53 construction workers
1965 Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes the only country to date to gain independence unwillingly
1969 Followers led by Charles Manson murder pregnant actress Sharon Tate (wife of Roman Polanski), coffee heiress Abigail Folger, Polish actor Wojciech Frykowski, men's hairstylist Jay Sebring and recent high-school graduate Steven Parent
1971 The Troubles: The British Army in Northern Ireland launches Operation Demetrius. Hundreds of people are arrested and interned, thousands are displaced, and twenty are killed in the violence that followed
1974 As a direct result of the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office. His Vice President, Gerald Ford, becomes president
1993 The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan loses a 38-year hold on national leadership
1999 Russian President Boris Yeltsin fires his Prime Minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time fires his entire cabinet
2006 At least 21 suspected terrorists were arrested in the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot that happened in the United Kingdom. The arrests were made in London, Birmingham, and High Wycombe in an overnight operation
2014 Michael Brown, an unarmed 18-year-old African American male in Ferguson, Missouri, was shot and killed by a Ferguson police officer, sparking protests and unrest in the city