Died in August

August 20, 2 Lucius Caesar the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was born between 14 of June and 15 July 17 BC with the name Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, but when he was adopted by his maternal grandfather Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus, his name was changed to Lucius Julius Caesar. In the year of his birth, his maternal grandfather Caesar Augustus adopted him and his brother Gaius Caesar. He and his brother were raised and educated by their grandparents
August 1, 30 Mark Antony a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
August 12, 30 Cleopatra the last active pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, only shortly survived by her son, Caesarion as pharaoh.
August 23, 30 Caesarion the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 44 Between the death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. He was killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named
August 25, 79 Pliny the Elder a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.
August 23, 93 Gnaeus Julius Agricola a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. Written by his son-in-law Tacitus, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae is the primary source for most of what is known about him, along with detailed archaeological evidence from northern Britain
August 8, 117 Trajan Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death. Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps , Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world
August 10, 210 Qin Shi Huang the King of the state of Qin who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 Rather than maintain the title of king borne by the Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty from 220 to 210 The title emperor would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia.
August 11, 223 Jia Xu an advisor to the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He previously served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue and Zhang Xiu before finally joining Cao Cao. During the Three Kingdoms era, he served as an official in the state of Cao Wei under Cao Pi, Cao Cao's son and successor
August 3, 226 Julia Maesa a Roman citizen and daughter of Gaius Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria. Grandmother of both the Roman emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus, she figured prominently in the ascension of each to the title at the age of fourteen
August 2, 257 Pope Stephen I the bishop of Rome from 12 May 254 to his death in 257. Of Roman birth but of Greek ancestry, he became bishop after serving as archdeacon of Pope Lucius I, who appointed Stephen his successor
August 6, 258 Pope Sixtus II the Pope or Bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 to his death in 258. He was martyred during the persecution by Emperor Valerian
August 25, 274 Empress Yang Yan an empress of Jin Dynasty. She was the first wife of Emperor Wu
August 10, 304 Philomena Saint Philomena was, as believed by her devotees within the Catholic Church, a young virgin martyr whose remains were discovered in 1802 in the Catacombs of Priscilla. Three tiles enclosing the tomb bore an inscription that was taken to indicate that her name was Filumena, the English form of which is Philomena
August 11, 353 Magnentius a usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.
August 18, 353 Decentius a usurper of the Western Roman Empire against emperor Constantius American scholar Michael DiMaio speculates that Decentius possibly was the brother of Magnentius, who had revolted against Constantius on 18 January 350.
August 25, 359 Junius Bassus an ancient Roman politician. The son of the praetorian prefect Junius Annius Bassus, he was vir clarissimus and vicarius of Rome as well as praefectus urbi from 25 March to 25 August 359
August 1, 371 Eusebius of Vercelli a bishop and saint in Italy. Along with Athanasius, he affirmed the divinity of Jesus against Arianism
August 9, 378 Valens the Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire
August 25, 383 Gratian Roman emperor from 375 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, during his youth Gratian accompanied his father on several campaigns along the Rhine and Danube frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratian's brother Valentinian II was declared emperor by his father's soldiers. In 378, Gratian's generals won a decisive victory over the Lentienses, a branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria. Gratian subsequently led a campaign across the Rhine, the last emperor to do so, and attacked the Lentienses, forcing the tribe to surrender. That same year, his uncle Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople against the Goths – making Gratian essentially ruler of the entire Roman Empire. He favoured Christianity over traditional Roman religion, refusing the divine attributes of the Emperors and removing the Altar of Victory from the Roman Senate
August 28, 388 Magnus Maximus Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
August 22, 408 Stilicho a high-ranking general in the Roman army who became, for a time, the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire. Half Vandal and married to the niece of the Emperor Theodosius, Stilicho’s regency for the underage Honorius marked the high point of German advancement in the service of Rome. After many years of victories against a number of enemies, both barbarian and Roman, a series of political and military disasters finally allowed his enemies in the court of Honorius to remove him from power, culminating in his arrest and subsequent execution in 408. Known for his military successes and sense of duty, Stilicho was, in the words of historian Edward Gibbon, “the last of the Roman generals.”
August 15, 423 Honorius (emperor) Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408
August 28, 430 Augustine of Hippo an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius , located in Numidia. He is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in the Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are City of God and Confessions
August 18, 440 Pope Sixtus III Pope from 31 July 432 to his death in 440.
August 7, 461 Majorian the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461.
August 15, 465 Libius Severus Western Roman Emperor from November 19, 461 to his death.
August 18, 472 Ricimer a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 456 until his death in 472. Deriving his power from his position as magister militum of the Western Empire, Ricimer exercised political control through a series of puppet emperors
August 6, 523 Pope Hormisdas Pope from 20 July 514 to his death in 523. His papacy was dominated by the Acacian schism, started in 484 by Acacius of Constantinople's efforts to placate the Monophysites. His efforts to resolve this schism were successful, and on 28 March 519, the reunion between Constantinople and Rome was ratified in the cathedral of Constantinople before a large crowd
August 30, 526 Theoderic the Great king of the Germanic Ostrogoths , ruler of Italy , regent of the Visigoths , and a patricius of the Eastern Roman Empire. His Gothic name Þiudareiks translates into "people-king" or "ruler of the people". Theodoric was born in Pannonia in 454, after his people had defeated the Huns at the Battle of Nedao. His father was King Theodemir, a Germanic Amali nobleman, and his mother was Ereleuva. Theodoric grew up as a hostage in Constantinople, receiving a privileged education, and he succeeded his father as leader of the Pannonian Ostrogoths in 473. Settling his people in lower Moesia, Theoderic came into conflict with Thracian Ostrogoths led by Theodoric Strabo, whom he eventually supplanted, uniting the peoples in 484
August 1, 527 Justin I Byzantine Emperor from 518 to 527. He rose through the ranks of the army and ultimately became its emperor, in spite of the fact he was illiterate and almost 70 years old at the time of accession. His reign is significant for the founding of the Justinian Dynasty that included his eminent nephew Justinian I and for the enactment of laws that de-emphasized the influence of the old Roman nobility. His consort was Empress Euphemia
August 27, 542 Caesarius of Arles the foremost ecclesiastic of his generation in Gaul. William Klingshirn’s study of Caesarius depicts that Caesarius had the reputation of a "popular preacher of great fervour and enduring influence." In all the Christian West, only Gregory the Great and Gregory of Tours overshadow him
August 14, 582 Tiberius II Constantine Byzantine Emperor from 574 to 582.
August 13, 587 Radegund a 6th-century Thuringian princess and Frankish queen, who founded the Abbey of the Holy Cross at Poitiers. She is the patron saint of several churches in France and England and of Jesus College, Cambridge whose full name "The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangelist and the glorious Virgin Saint Radegund, near Cambridge"
August 13, 604 Emperor Wen of Sui the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty. He was a hard-working administrator and a micromanager. As a Buddhist, he encouraged the spread of Buddhism through the state. He is regarded as one of the most important emperors in Chinese history, reunifying China in 589 after centuries of division since the fall of Western Jin Dynasty in 316. During his reign began the construction of the Grand Canal
August 13, 612 Fabia Eudokia a Byzantine woman who became the first empress-consort of Heraclius from 610 to her death in 612. She was a daughter of Rogas, a landowner in the Exarchate of Africa, according to Theophanes the Confessor
August 28, 632 Fatimah a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah, wife of Ali and mother of Hasan and Hussein, and one of the members of Ahl al-Bayt. She became the object of great veneration by all Muslims, because she lived closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, because of the historical importance of her husband and her two sons, and because she is the only member of Muhammad's family that gave him descendants, numerously spread through the Islamic world and known as Fatimid
August 22, 634 Abu Bakr a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE, when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As Caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was called Al-Siddiq and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims
August 2, 640 Pope Severinus Pope from 28 May to his death in 640. He became caught up in a power struggle with the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius over the ongoing Monothelite controversy
August 5, 642 Oswald of Northumbria venerated as a saint, of which there was a particular cult in the Middle Ages.
August 20, 651 Oswine of Deira a King of Deira in northern England.
August 31, 651 Aidan of Lindisfarne an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria. He founded a monastic cathedral on the island of Lindisfarne, served as its first bishop, and travelled ceaselessly throughout the countryside, spreading the gospel to both the Anglo-Saxon nobility and to the socially disenfranchised
August 13, 662 Maximus the Confessor a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar.
August 21, 672 Emperor Kōbun the 39th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
August 18, 673 Kim Yushin a general in 7th-century Silla. He led the unification of the Korean peninsula by Silla under the reign of King Muyeol of Silla and King Munmu of Silla. He is said to have been the great-grandchild of King Guhae of Geumgwan Gaya, the last ruler of the Geumgwan Gaya state. This would have given him a very high position in the Silla bone rank system, which governed the political and military status that a person could attain
August 2, 686 Pope John V Pope from 12 July 685 to his death in 686. He was the first pope of the Byzantine Papacy allowed to be consecrated by the Byzantine Emperor without prior consent, and the first in a line of ten consecutive popes of Eastern origin. His papacy was marked by reconciliation between the city of Rome and the Empire
August 2, 713 Princess Taiping a princess of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and her mother Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. She was the youngest daughter of Wu Zetian and Emperor Gaozong and was powerful during the reigns of her mother and her elder brothers Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong , particularly during Emperor Ruizong's second reign
August 31, 731 Ōtomo no Tabito a Japanese poet, best known as the father of Ōtomo no Yakamochi, who contributed to compiling the Man'yōshū alongside his father. Tabito was a contemporary of Hitomaro, but lacked his success in the Imperial Court. While serving as Governor-General of Dazaifu, the military procuracy in northern Kyūshū from 728-730, Tabito hosted a plum-blossom party, encouraging the composition of poetry among his subordinates in imitation of Chinese style elegance. He also showed his Chinese education in his set of thirteen tanka in praise of sake
August 6, 750 Marwan II an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus
August 17, 754 Carloman (mayor of the palace) the eldest son of Charles Martel, majordomo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud of Treves. On Charles's death , Carloman and his brother Pepin the Short succeeded to their father's legal positions, Carloman in Austrasia, and Pepin in Neustria. He was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks. He withdrew from public life in 747 to take up the monastic habit, "the first of a new type of saintly king," according to Norman Cantor, "more interested in religious devotion than royal power, who frequently appeared in the following three centuries and who was an indication of the growing impact of Christian piety on Germanic society"