Born on 1st day

August 1, 10 Claudius Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37
August 1, 126 Pertinax Roman Emperor for three months in 193. He is known as the first emperor of the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. A high-ranking military and Senatorial figure, he tried to restore discipline in the Praetorian Guards, whereupon they rebelled and killed him. Upon his death he was succeeded by Didius Julianus, whose reign was similarly short
October 1, 208 Alexander Severus Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy
March 1, 350 Vetranio a Roman soldier and statesman, a native of the province of Moesia. He was an experienced soldier and officer when he was asked by Constantina, the sister of Roman Emperor Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar. Her brother Constans had been killed by Magnentius earlier that year and she probably thought Vetranio could protect her family and herself against the usurper. Vetranio accepted, and coins were minted in his name, showing the title of Augustus , rather than Caesar. Constantius first seemed to accept the new Emperor and his regalia and sent him money to raise an army. Vetranio frequently asked Constantius for money and military aid to fight Magnentius; he also sent letters to the emperor professing his loyalty to him. When negotiations deadlocked, Magnentius and Vetranio made an alliance; they sent an embassy to the emperor. The ambassadors met with the emperor in Heraclea in Thrace. Magnentius offered to marry his daughter to Constantius and to marry Constantia, the emperor's sister, in turn. But first, they required that the emperor lay down his arms and accept the honor as senior emperor. Constantius rejected their offer
January 1, 512 Saint Maurus O.S.B. was the first disciple of Benedict of Nursia. He is mentioned in Gregory the Great's biography of the latter as the first oblate; offered to the monastery by his noble Roman parents as a young boy to be brought up in the monastic life. Four stories involving Maurus recounted by Gregory formed a pattern for the ideal formation of a Benedictine monk. The most famous of these involved Maurus's rescue of Saint Placidus, a younger boy offered to Benedict at the same time as Maurus. The incident has been reproduced in many medieval and Renaissance paintings
September 1, 560 Abu Sufyan ibn Harb the leader of the Quraish tribe of Mecca. He was a staunch opponent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad before accepting Islam and becoming a Muslim warrior later in his life. His mother, Safia, is the paternal aunt of Maymuna bint al-Harith
January 1, 766 Ali al-Ridha the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to the Twelver Shia sect of Islam as well as an Imam of knowledge according to the Zaydi Shia school and Sufis. His given name was 'Alī ibn Mūsā ibn Ja'far
August 1, 845 Sugawara no Michizane a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan. He is regarded as an excellent poet, particularly in Chinese poetry, and is today revered as the god of learning, Tenman-Tenjin
November 1, 846 Louis the Stammerer the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. During the peace negotiations between his father and Erispoe of Brittany, Louis was betrothed to an unnamed daughter of Erispoe in 856. It is not known if this was the same daughter who later married Gurivant. The contract was broken in 857 upon Erispoe's murder
January 1, 870 Zwentibold the illegitimate son of the Carolingian Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. In 895, his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death. After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church
August 1, 873 Thachulf Duke of Thuringia the Duke of Thuringia from 849 until his death. He held the titles of comes and dux and he ruled over a marca. He may have been the son of Hadulf, son of Thankulf
December 1, 928 Diogo Fernandes (count) known that his father was named Fernando, and that he was possibly from Castile. He is the ancestor of many of the important 10th and 11th-century noble families in the County of Portugal and in the Kingdom of León. Although the relationship has not been documented, some authors believe that Diego could have been the brother of Count Ero and of Godesteu Fernández who married his niece, Gugina Ériz, daughter of his supposed brother, Ero
June 1, 932 Thietmar Count of Merseburg the military tutor of Henry the Fowler while he was the heir and then duke of the Duchy of Saxony. He probably kept a small body of elite retainers armed with the latest in military technology and well-supplied with expensive horses
September 1, 948 Emperor Jingzong of Liao an emperor of the Liao Dynasty and reigned from March 13, 969 to October 13, 982.
October 1, 961 Artald of Reims twice Archbishop of Reims. He held the post first 931 to 940, when he was displaced by Hugh of Vermandois. He was restored, with the help of Louis IV of France, in 946
July 1, 965 Alhazen an Arab, Muslim, scientist, polymath, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, astronomy, mathematics, meteorology, visual perception and the scientific method.
August 1, 1068 Emperor Taizu of Jin Emperor of Jin from January 28, 1115 to September 19, 1123. He was the chieftain of the Jurchen Wanyan tribe, founder and first emperor of the Jin Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Wanyan Wuyashu. Aguda was given the temple name Taizu
June 1, 1076 Mstislav I of Kiev the Grand Prince of Kiev , the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. He figures prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name Harald, taken to allude to his grandfather, Harold II of England. Mstislav's Christian name was Theodore
December 1, 1081 Louis VI of France King of the Franks from 1108 until his death. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis"
December 1, 1083 Anna Komnene a Greek princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and the daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos of Byzantium and Irene Doukaina. She wrote the Alexiad, an account of her father’s reign, which is unique in that it was written by a princess about her father
August 1, 1098 Adhemar of Le Puy bishop of Puy-en-Velay from before 1087.
March 1, 1105 Alfonso VII of León and Castile born Alfonso Raimúndez, called the Emperor , became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. Alfonso first used the title Emperor of All Spain, alongside his mother Urraca, once his mother vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116. Alfonso later held another investiture in 1135 in a grand ceremony reasserting his claims to the Imperial title. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in the Iberian peninsula
June 1, 1134 Geoffrey Count of Nantes Count of Nantes from 1156 to 1158. He was also known as Geoffrey of Anjou and Geoffrey FitzEmpress
September 1, 1145 Ibn Jubayr a geographer, traveler and poet from al-Andalus. His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from 1183 to 1185, in the years preceding the Third Crusade. His chronicle describes Saladin's domains in Egypt and the Levant which he passed through on his way to Mecca. Further, on his return journey he passed through Christian Sicily, which had only been recaptured from the Muslims a century before, and he makes several observations on the hybrid polyglot culture which flourished there
August 1, 1182 Pietro da Pavia bishop-elect of Meaux , Cardinal-Priest of Crisogono and finally Cardinal-Bishop of Tusculum. He was papal legate, together with Henri de Marsiac, in southern France against Cathars and Waldenses 1174–1178. He participated in the Third Lateran Council in 1179. Then he was sent again as papal legate to southern France and to Germany. He subscribed the papal bulls issued between October 14, 1173 and July 14, 1182. In 1180 he was elected archbishop of Bourges but it seems that he did not assume that post
June 1, 1186 Minamoto no Yukiie the brother of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, and one of the commanders of the Minamoto forces in the Genpei War at the end of the Heian period of Japanese history.
October 1, 1207 Henry III of England King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who reestablished royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church
May 1, 1218 John I Count of Hainaut the count of Hainaut from 1246 to his death. Born in Houffalize, he was the eldest son of Margaret II of Flanders by her first husband, Bouchard IV of Avesnes. As the marriage of Margaret and Bouchard was papally dissolved, he was considered illegitimate
May 1, 1218 Rudolf I of Germany King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. Rudolf was the first of the count-kings, so-called by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller
April 1, 1220 Emperor Go-Saga the 88th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1242 through 1246
May 1, 1224 Jean de Joinville one of the great chroniclers of medieval France. He is most famous for writing Life of Louis, a biography of Louis IX of France that chronicled the Seventh Crusade
August 1, 1227 Shimazu Tadahisa the founder of the Shimazu samurai clan.
May 1, 1238 Magnus VI of Norway King of Norway from 1263 to 1280. One of his greatest achievements was his modernisation and nationalisation of the Norwegian law-code, after which he is known as Magnus the Law-mender. He was the first Norwegian monarch known to personally have used an ordinal number, although originally counting himself as "IV"
February 1, 1261 Walter de Stapledon Bishop of Exeter 1308–1326 and twice Lord High Treasurer of England, in 1320 and 1322. He founded Exeter College, Oxford and contributed liberally to the rebuilding of Exeter Cathedral. His tomb and monument, of great architectural importance, survives in Exeter Cathedral
March 1, 1261 Hugh le Despenser 1st Earl of Winchester for a time the chief adviser to King Edward II of England.
May 1, 1278 William II of Villehardouin the last Villehardouin prince of Achaea and ruled the principality at the height of its power and influence.
May 1, 1285 Edmund FitzAlan 9th Earl of Arundel an English nobleman prominent in the conflict between Edward II and his barons. His father, Richard FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, died 09/03/1301 while Edmund was still a minor. He therefore became a ward of John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, and married Warenne's granddaughter Alice. In 1306 he was styled Earl of Arundel, and served under Edward I in the Scottish Wars, for which he was richly rewarded
September 1, 1288 Elizabeth Richeza of Poland a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and by her two marriages Queen consort of Bohemia, Poland and Duchess consort of Austria and Styria.
February 1, 1300 Bolko II of Ziębice a Duke of Jawor-Lwówek-Świdnica-Ziębice in Poland from 1301 to 1312 , of Świdnica-Ziębice from 1312 to 1322 , and sole Duke of Ziębice from 1322 until his death.
June 1, 1300 Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl of Norfolk the son of Edward I of England and Margaret of France and a younger half-brother of Edward II.
July 1, 1311 Liu Ji (14th century) a great military strategist, officer, statesman and poet of the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty period of Chinese history. He was born in Qingtian County. He was the main strategist and advisor of the Yuan Dynasty era rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang , who later became the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty.. Liu Ji is also known for his prophecies, as he has been described as the " Divine Chinese Nostradamus". With his contemporary general and scholar Jiao Yu, he was one of the co-editors of the military treatise known as the Huolongjing. His most famous military treatise is known as the Lessons of War
August 1, 1313 Emperor Kōgon the first of the Ashikaga Pretenders during the Period of the Northern and Southern Courts in Japan. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1332 through 1334
May 1, 1326 Rinchinbal Khan Emperor Ningzong of Yuan a son of Kuśala who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan Dynasty, but died soon after he seized the throne of Great Khan of the Mongols and Emperor of China. He was the shortest-reigning Mongol emperor in history
April 1, 1328 Blanche of France Duchess of Orléans the posthumous daughter of King Charles IV of France and his third wife Jeanne d'Évreux.
July 1, 1336 Philip Duke of Orléans a Duke of Orléans, Touraine and Count of Valois, the fifth son of King Philip VI of France and his wife Joan the Lame.
November 1, 1339 Rudolf IV Duke of Austria a scion of the House of Habsburg and Duke of Austria and Duke of Styria and Carinthia from 1358, as well as Count of Tyrol from 1363 and first Duke of Carniola from 1364 until his death. After the Habsburgs got nothing from the decree of the Golden Bull in 1356, he gave order to draw up the "Privilegium Maius", a fake document to empower the Austrian rulers
September 1, 1341 Frederick the Simple King of Sicily from 1355 to 1377. He was the second son of Peter II of Sicily and Elisabeth of Carinthia. He succeeded his brother Louis. The documents of his era call him the "infante Frederick, ruler of the kingdom of Sicily", without any regnal number
December 1, 1342 John VI Count of Harcourt a count of Harcourt. He was son of John V of Harcourt and Blanche of Ponthieu who was the sister of Jeanne of Ponthieu
October 1, 1348 Isabella Countess of Vertus a French princess and member of the House of Valois, as well as the wife of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan, although she died before her husband's accession.
November 1, 1351 Leopold III Duke of Austria Duke of Austria from 1365 to 1379, and Duke of Styria, Carniola and Carinthia in 1365–1386.