12th day events in history

April 12, 238 Gordian II loses the Battle of Carthage against the Numidian forces loyal to Maximinus Thrax and is killed. Gordian I, his father, commits suicide
April 12, 240 Shapur I is crowned as king of the Sasanian Empire
May 12, 254 Pope Stephen I succeeds Pope Lucius I as the 23rd pope
May 12, 304 Roman Emperor Diocletian orders the beheading of the 14-year-old Pancras of Rome
September 12, 372 Sixteen Kingdoms: Jin Xiaowudi, age 10, succeeds his father Jin Jianwendi as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty
April 12, 467 Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
March 12, 538 Vitiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius
April 12, 627 King Edwin of Northumbria is converted to Christianity by Paulinus, bishop of York
December 12, 627 Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II's Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh
October 12, 633 Battle of Hatfield Chase: King Edwin of Northumbria is defeated and killed by the British under Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon of Gwynedd
February 12, 881 Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Holy Roman Emperor
May 12, 907 Zhu Wen forces Emperor Ai into abdicating, ending the Tang Dynasty after nearly three hundred years of rule
May 12, 922 After much hardship, Abbasid envoy Ahmad ibn Fadlan arrived in the lands of Volga Bulgars
July 12, 927 Æthelstan, King of England, secures a pledge from Constantine II of Scotland that the latter will not ally with Viking kings, beginning the process of unifying Great Britain. This is considered the closest thing that England has to a foundation date
November 12, 1028 Future Byzantine empress Zoe takes the throne as empress consort to Romanos III Argyros
December 12, 1098 First Crusade: Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan – Crusaders breach the town's walls and massacre about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they reportedly resort to cannibalism
August 12, 1099 First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade
October 12, 1113 The city of Oradea is first mentioned under the Latin name Varadinum ("vár" means fortress in Hungarian)
August 12, 1121 Battle of Didgori: The Georgian army under King David IV wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi
August 12, 1164 Battle of Harim: Nur ad-Din Zangi defeats the Crusader armies of the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch
September 12, 1185 Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos brutally put to death in Constantinople
May 12, 1191 Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre who is crowned Queen consort of England the same day
July 12, 1191 Third Crusade: Saladin's garrison surrenders to Philip Augustus, ending the two-year siege of Acre
April 12, 1204 The Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade breach the walls of Constantinople and enter the city, which they completely occupy the following day
September 12, 1213 Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret
October 12, 1216 John, King of England loses his crown jewels in The Wash, probably near Fosdyke, perhaps near Sutton Bridge
September 12, 1229 The Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island
October 12, 1279 Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk founder of Nichiren Buddhism, inscribes the Dai-Gohonzon
September 12, 1309 The First Siege of Gibraltar takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada resulting in a Castilian victory
August 12, 1323 Signature of the Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia), that regulates the border between the two countries for the first time
May 12, 1328 Antipope Nicholas V, a claimant to the papacy, is consecrated in Rome by the Bishop of Venice
November 12, 1330 Battle of Posada, Wallachian Voievode Basarab I defeats the Hungarian army in an ambush
May 12, 1364 Jagiellonian University, the oldest university in Poland, is founded in Kraków, Poland
June 12, 1381 Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath
December 12, 1388 Mary of Enghien sells the lordship of Argos and Nauplia to the Republic of Venice
October 12, 1398 The Treaty of Salynas is signed between Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Teutonic Knights, who received Samogitia
December 12, 1408 The Order of the Dragon a monarchical chivalric order is created by Sigismund of Luxembourg, then King of Hungary
June 12, 1418 An insurrection delivers Paris to the Burgundians
February 12, 1429 English forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orléans from attack by the Comte de Clermont and Sir John Stewart of Darnley in the Battle of Rouvray (also known as the Battle of the Herrings)
June 12, 1429 Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc leads the French army in their capture of the city and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau
November 12, 1439 Plymouth, England, becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament
July 12, 1470 The Ottomans capture Euboea
August 12, 1480 Battle of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam; they are later honored in the Church
October 12, 1492 Christopher Columbus's expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, specifically in The Bahamas. The explorer believes he has reached the Indies
July 12, 1493 Hartmann Schedel's Nuremberg Chronicle, one of the best-documented early printed books, is published
August 12, 1499 First engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets
February 12, 1502 Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India
May 12, 1510 The Prince of Anhua rebellion begins when Zhu Zhifan kills all the officials invited to a banquet and declares his intent on ousting the powerful Ming Dynasty eunuch Liu Jin during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor
July 12, 1527 Lê Cung Hoàng ceded the throne to Mạc Đăng Dung, ending the Lê Dynasty and starting the Mạc Dynasty
January 12, 1528 Gustav I of Sweden crowned king of Sweden