Born on 31st day

January 31, 36 Antonia Minor the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. She was additionally the maternal great-aunt of the Empress Valeria Messalina and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, and paternal grandmother of Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, and Britannicus
December 31, 45 Quintus Fabius Maximus a general and politician of the late Roman Republic who became suffect consul in 45 BC.
August 31, 161 Commodus Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180
March 31, 356 Aelia Flaccilla a Roman empress and first wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius She was of Hispanian Roman descent. During her marriage to Theodosius, she gave birth to two sons — future Emperors Arcadius and Honorius — and a daughter, Aelia Pulcheria. She was titled Augusta, as her coinage shows
August 31, 577 John Scholasticus the 32nd patriarch of Constantinople from April 12, 565 until his death in 577. He is also regarded as a saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church
December 31, 695 Muhammad bin Qasim an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Taif. Qasim's conquest of Sindh and southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Islamic expansion into India
January 31, 877 Taejo of Goryeo the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century. Taejo ruled from 918 to 943
May 31, 1015 Ernest I Duke of Swabia the Duke of Swabia. He was a younger son of Leopold I, the Babenberg Margrave of Austria. His mother was called Richardis of Sualafeldgau
December 31, 1135 Henry of Groitzsch the second son of Wiprecht of Groitzsch and Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia. He succeeded his father as burggrave of Magdeburg in 1124
July 31, 1143 Emperor Nijō the 78th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1158 through 1165
May 31, 1243 James II of Majorca King of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1276 until his death. He was the second son of James I of Aragon and his wife Violant, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary. In 1279, by the Treaty of Perpignan, he became a vassal of the Crown of Aragon
August 31, 1287 Konrad von Würzburg the chief German poet of the second half of the 13th century.
October 31, 1291 Philippe de Vitry a French composer, music theorist and poet. He was an accomplished, innovative, and influential composer, and may also have been the author of the Ars Nova treatise. He was widely acknowledged as the greatest musician of his day, with Petrarch writing a glowing tribute, calling him: "...the keenest and most ardent seeker of truth, so great a philosopher of our age."
October 31, 1345 Ferdinand I of Portugal the King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1367 until his death.
March 31, 1347 Frederick III Duke of Austria buried in the Ducal Crypt.
March 31, 1360 Philippa of Lancaster Queen of Portugal from 1387 until 1415 as the wife of King John Born into the royal family of England, her marriage secured the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance and produced several children who became known as the "Illustrious Generation" in Portugal.
March 31, 1373 Catherine of Lancaster Queen of Castile as the wife of King Henry III of Castile.
December 31, 1378 Pope Callixtus III Pope from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458. He was the last pope to take the name "Callixtus" upon his election
July 31, 1391 Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli a restlessly itinerant Italian humanist and antiquarian who came from a prominent family of merchants in Ancona. Sometimes he is called the Father of Archaeology. Unlike many library antiquarians, Ciriaco traveled at first for his family's ventures then to satisfy his own curiosity, all around the Eastern Mediterranean, noting down his archaeological discoveries in his day-book, Commentaria, that eventually filled six volumes. He made numerous voyages in Southern Italy, Dalmatia and Epirus and into the Morea, to Egypt, to Chios, Rhodes and Beirut, to Anatolia and Constantinople, during which he wrote detailed descriptions of monuments and ancient remains, illustrated by his drawings. He was employed by the Ottomans during the 1422 siege of Constantinople. His detailed on-site observations, particularly in lands of the Ottoman Empire, make him one of the precursors of modern archaeology. His accuracy as a meticulous epigrapher was praised by Giovanni Battista de Rossi
October 31, 1391 Edward King of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarve and second Lord of Ceuta from 1433 until his death. He was born in Viseu, the son of John I of Portugal and his wife, Philippa of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt. Duarte was the oldest member of the Ínclita Geração
July 31, 1396 Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty. During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, of Franco-Flemish composers such as Gilles Binchois, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position. Moreover, as ruler of Flanders, Brabant, Limburg, Artois, Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland and Namur, he played an important role in the history of the Low Countries
August 31, 1398 John Dauphin of France Duke of Touraine the fourth son and ninth child of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. He was born in Paris. After his three elder brothers died, he became Dauphin in 1415. In 1406 he married Jacqueline, heiress of the County of Hainaut, Holland, Zealand, and Frisia. After his marriage to Jacqueline, he was brought up at the castle of Le Quesnoy in Hainaut, at the court of his mother-in-law, Margaret of Burgundy. This arrangement was made between his father and his father-in-law to ensure his safety away from the tulmultous court in Paris, as well as to acquaint him with the lands which he would rule as husband of Jacqueline after her father's death. After the death of his elder brother Louis in December 1415, he became the next Dauphin of France
October 31, 1412 Ludwig I Count of Württemberg-Urach Count of Württemberg. He was a son of count Eberhard IV and Henriette of Montbéliard. He reigned from 1419 until 1450
October 31, 1424 Władysław III of Poland King of Poland from 1434, and King of Hungary from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.
March 31, 1425 Bianca Maria Visconti Duchess of Milan from 1450 to 1468.
May 31, 1443 Margaret Beaufort Countess of Richmond and Derby the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England. She was a key figure in the Wars of the Roses and an influential matriarch of the House of Tudor. She founded two prominent Cambridge Colleges; Christ's College in 1505, and St John's College in 1511
October 31, 1451 Christopher Columbus a Genoese explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World
May 31, 1469 Manuel I of Portugal the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, it was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions and with a global dimension, for the first time in history, during Manuel's reign
October 31, 1472 Wang Yangming a Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general during the Ming dynasty. After Zhu Xi, he is commonly regarded as the most important Neo-Confucian thinker, with interpretations of Confucianism that denied the rationalist dualism of the orthodox philosophy of Zhu Wang was known as "Yangming Xiansheng" and/or "Yangming Zi" in literary circles: both mean "Master Yangming"
December 31, 1491 Jacques Cartier now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona and at Hochelaga
December 31, 1493 Eleonora Gonzaga Duchess of Urbino the eldest of the seven children of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua, and Isabella d'Este. Her father was a notorious libertine, her mother a famous patroness of the arts. On 25 September 1509 she married Francesco Maria I della Rovere, duke of Urbino, son of Giovanni della Rovere, duca di Sora e Senegaglia, and Giovanna da Montefeltro, and nephew of Pope Julius Their two sons and three daughters would all have progeny
March 31, 1499 Pope Pius IV Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565. He is known for presiding over the final session of the Council of Trent
March 31, 1504 Guru Angad the second of the ten Sikh Gurus. He was born in the village of Sarae Naga in Muktsar District in Punjab on 31 March 1504. The name Lehna was given shortly after his birth as was the custom of his Hindu parents. He was the son of a small but successful trader named Pheru Mal. His mother's name was Mata Ramo. Baba Narayan Das Trehan was the Guru's Grandfather, whose ancestral house was at Matte-di-Sarai near Muktsar
December 31, 1504 Beatrice of Portugal Duchess of Savoy Duchess of Savoy by marriage.
January 31, 1512 Henry King of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He ruled Portugal between 1578 and 1580, and was known as Henry the Chaste
December 31, 1514 Andreas Vesalius a Brabantian anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. He was professor at the University of Padua and later became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V
March 31, 1519 Henry II of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536
July 31, 1526 Augustus Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.
May 31, 1527 Agnes of Hesse a princess of Hesse by birth and by marriage Electress of Saxony.
July 31, 1527 Maximilian II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany on 24 November 1562. On 16 July 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
May 31, 1535 Alessandro Allori an Italian portrait painter of the late Mannerist Florentine school.
March 31, 1536 Ashikaga Yoshiteru the 13th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1546 to 1565 during the late Muromachi period of Japan. He was the eldest son of the 12th shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiharu; and his mother was a daughter of Konoe Hisamichi. When he became shogun in 1546 at age 11, Yoshiteru's name was Yoshifushi ; but some years later in 1554, he changed his name to the one by which he is conventionally known today. His younger brother Ashikaga Yoshiaki would become the fifteenth shogun
August 31, 1542 Isabella de' Medici the daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleonora di Toledo. She was raised and educated in a humanist manner with her siblings, including Francesco de' Medici who succeeded their father as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. To secure a relationship with the powerful Roman Orsinis, Isabella's father arranged her marriage to Paolo Giordano I Orsini when she was 16. She remained in her father's household after her marriage, giving her an unusual degree of independence for a woman of her period. Following the death of her father, Isabella was probably murdered, with the complicity of her husband and brother, and in retribution for her relationship with Paolo Giordano's cousin Troilo Orsini
October 31, 1542 Henriette of Cleves a French noblewoman and heiress of the Cleves-Nevers family. She was also known as Henriette de La Marck. She became the "suo jure" 4th Duchess of Nevers and the "suo jure" Countess of Rethel, upon the childless death of her brother, James of Cleves, Duke of Nevers and Count of Rethel, in 1564. She was the wife of Louis I Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, 1st Duke of Rethel, and Prince of Mantua. Following her marriage she became the Duchess of Rethel and Princess of Mantua
January 31, 1543 Tokugawa Ieyasu the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen
August 31, 1546 Daniel Adam z Veleslavína a Czech lexicographer, publisher, translator, and writer.
December 31, 1550 Henry I Duke of Guise the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, and Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI
December 31, 1552 Simon Forman an Elizabethan astrologer, occultist and herbalist active in London during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and James I of England. His reputation, however, was severely tarnished after his death when he was implicated in the plot to kill Sir Thomas Overbury. Writers from Ben Jonson to Nathaniel Hawthorne came to characterize him as either as a fool or an evil magician in league with the devil
March 31, 1555 Elizabeth Stuart Countess of Lennox the wife of Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox. She was the mother of Arbella Stuart, a close claimant to the English and Scottish thrones
May 31, 1556 Jerzy Radziwiłł (1556–1600) a Polish–Lithuanian nobleman from the Radziwiłł family. He was a Catholic bishop and cardinal. Radziwiłł was also an Imperial Prince