31st day events in history

March 31, 307 After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian
January 31, 314 Silvester I begins his reign as Pope of the Catholic Church, succeeding Pope Miltiades
December 31, 406 Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gaul
May 31, 455 Emperor Petronius Maximus is stoned to death by an angry mob while fleeing Rome
October 31, 475 Romulus Augustulus is proclaimed Western Roman Emperor
May 31, 526 A devastating earthquake strikes Antioch, Turkey, killing 250,000
December 31, 535 Byzantine general Belisarius completes the conquest of Sicily, defeating the Gothic garrison of Palermo (Panormos), and ending his consulship for the year
March 31, 627 Battle of the Trench: Muhammad undergoes a 14-day siege at Medina (Saudi Arabia) by Meccan forces under Abu Sufyan
October 31, 683 During the Siege of Mecca, the Kaaba catches fire and is burned down
July 31, 781 The oldest recorded eruption of Mount Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781)
July 31, 1009 Pope Sergius IV becomes the 142nd pope, succeeding Pope John XVIII
August 31, 1056 After a sudden illness a few days previously, Byzantine Empress Theodora dies childless, thus ending the Macedonian dynasty
March 31, 1146 Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade
July 31, 1201 Attempted usurpation of John Komnenos the Fat
August 31, 1218 Al-Kamil becomes Sultan of Egypt, Syria and northern Mesopotamia on the death of his father Al-Adil
May 31, 1223 Mongol invasion of the Cumans: Battle of the Kalka River – Mongol armies of Genghis Khan led by Subutai defeat Kievan Rus' and Cumans
December 31, 1225 The Lý Dynasty of Vietnam ends after 216 years by the enthronement of the boy emperor Trần Thái Tông, husband of the last Lý monarch, Lý Chiêu Hoàng, starting the Trần Dynasty
December 31, 1229 James I of Aragon the Conqueror enters Medina Mayurqa (now known as Palma, Spain) thus consummating the Christian reconquest of the island of Majorca
August 31, 1314 King Håkon V Magnusson moves the capital of Norway from Bergen to Oslo
August 31, 1422 King Henry V of England dies of dysentery while in France. His son, Henry VI becomes King of England at the age of 9 months
July 31, 1423 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Cravant – the French army is defeated by the English at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne
July 31, 1451 Jacques Cœur is arrested by order of Charles VII of France
March 31, 1492 Queen Isabella of Castille issues the Alhambra Decree, ordering her 150,000 Jewish and Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion
July 31, 1492 The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect
July 31, 1498 On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad
December 31, 1501 The First Battle of Cannanore commences
January 31, 1504 France cedes Naples to Aragon
October 31, 1517 Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg
March 31, 1561 The city of San Cristóbal, Táchira is founded
May 31, 1578 King Henry III lays the first stone of the Pont Neuf (New Bridge), the oldest bridge of Paris, France
May 31, 1578 Martin Frobisher sails from Harwich in England to Frobisher Bay in Canada, eventually to mine fool's gold, used to pave streets in London
October 31, 1587 Leiden University Library opens its doors after its founding in 1575
July 31, 1588 The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England
December 31, 1600 The British East India Company is chartered
January 31, 1606 Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes is executed for plotting against Parliament and King James
July 31, 1655 Russo-Polish War (1654–67): the Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years
July 31, 1658 Aurangzeb is proclaimed Moghul emperor of India
December 31, 1660 James II of England is named Duke of Normandy by Louis XIV of France
July 31, 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War: Treaty of Breda ends the conflict
May 31, 1669 Citing poor eyesight, Samuel Pepys records the last event in his diary
December 31, 1687 The first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope
December 31, 1695 A window tax is imposed in England, causing many householders to brick up windows to avoid the tax
July 31, 1703 Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet, but is pelted with flowers
July 31, 1712 Action of 31 July 1712 (Great Northern War): Danish and Swedish ships clash in the Baltic Sea; the result is inconclusive
July 31, 1715 Seven days after a Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships left Havana, Cuba for Spain, 11 of them sink in a storm off the coast of Florida. A few centuries later, treasure is salvaged from these wrecks
March 31, 1717 A sermon on "The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ" by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provokes the Bangorian Controversy
July 31, 1741 Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia
January 31, 1747 The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Lock Hospital
December 31, 1757 Empress Elizabeth I of Russia issues her ukase incorporating Königsberg into Russia
December 31, 1759 Arthur Guinness signs a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum and starts brewing Guinness