Born on December 1

928 Diogo Fernandes (count) known that his father was named Fernando, and that he was possibly from Castile. He is the ancestor of many of the important 10th and 11th-century noble families in the County of Portugal and in the Kingdom of León. Although the relationship has not been documented, some authors believe that Diego could have been the brother of Count Ero and of Godesteu Fernández who married his niece, Gugina Ériz, daughter of his supposed brother, Ero
1081 Louis VI of France King of the Franks from 1108 until his death. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis"
1083 Anna Komnene a Greek princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and the daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos of Byzantium and Irene Doukaina. She wrote the Alexiad, an account of her father’s reign, which is unique in that it was written by a princess about her father
1342 John VI Count of Harcourt a count of Harcourt. He was son of John V of Harcourt and Blanche of Ponthieu who was the sister of Jeanne of Ponthieu
1415 Jan Długosz a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
1438 Peter II Duke of Bourbon the son of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes of Burgundy, and a member of the House of Bourbon. He and his wife Anne of France ruled as regents during the minority of Charles VIII of France
1443 Magdalena of Valois a daughter of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou, and acted as regent for her children, Francis I and Catherine I, who were successively monarchs of Navarre.
1521 Takeda Shingen a pre-eminent daimyo in feudal Japan with exceptional military prestige in the late stage of the Sengoku period.
1525 Tadeáš Hájek the personal physician of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II and a Bohemian astronomer.
1580 Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc a French astronomer, antiquary and savant, who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists, and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry. His research included a determination of the difference in longitude of various locations in Europe, around the Mediterranean, and in North Africa
1623 Christian Louis I Duke of Mecklenburg a reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
1690 Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke an English lawyer and politician who served as Lord Chancellor. He was a close confidant of the Duke of Newcastle, Prime Minister between 1754 and 1756 and 1757 until 1762
1709 Franz Xaver Richter an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral. From 1783 on Haydn’s favourite pupil Ignaz Pleyel was his deputy at the cathedral
1716 Étienne Maurice Falconet counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, whose patron was Mme de Pompadour.
1729 Giuseppe Sarti an Italian opera composer.
1734 Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski an influential Polish noble, writer, literary and theater critic, linguist, traveller and statesman. He was a great patron of arts and a candidate for the Polish crown. He was educated in England and after his return to Poland in 1758, he became a member of the Sejm , Crown General of Podolia and Marshal of General Confederation of Kingdom of Poland
1743 Martin Heinrich Klaproth a German chemist who discovered uranium , zirconium , and cerium.
1751 Charles-Philippe Ronsin a French general of the Revolutionary Army of the First French Republic, commanding the large Parisian division of l'Armée Révolutionnaire. He was an extreme radical leader of the French Revolution, and one of the many followers of Jacques-René Hébert, known as the Hébertists
1751 Johan Henric Kellgren a Swedish poet and critic.
1761 Marie Tussaud a French born artist of German descent, who became known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum that she founded in London.
1780 Bernhard Rudolf Abeken a German philologist and literature historian.
1781 Sir William Parker 1st Baronet of Shenstone a Royal Navy officer. As a captain's servant he took part in the Battle of The Glorious First of June in June 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars and, as a captain, he participated in the capture of the French ships Marengo and Belle Poule at the Action of 13 March 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. He was detached on an independent command on the Tagus in September 1831 with a mission to protect British interests during the Portuguese Civil War. As Commander-in-chief of the East Indies and China Station, he provided naval support at various actions between 1841 and 1842 during the First Opium War. Appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet in February 1845, he was briefly First Naval Lord in the First Russell ministry from 13 July 1846 to 24 July 1846 but gave up the role due to ill health before returning to his command with the Mediterranean Fleet
1784 Castil-Blaze a French musicologist, music critic, composer, and music editor.
1792 Nikolai Lobachevsky a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry.
1795 James Whitcomb a Democratic United States Senator and the eighth Governor of Indiana. As governor during the Mexican-American War, he oversaw the formation and deployment of the state's levies. He led the movement to replace the state constitution and played an important role at the convention to institute a law that prevented the government from taking loans in response the current fiscal crisis in Indiana. By skillfully guiding the state through its bankruptcy, Whitcomb is usually credited as being one of the most successful of Indiana's governors. He was elected to the United States Senate after his term as governor but died of kidney disease only two years later
1800 Mihály Vörösmarty an important Hungarian poet and dramatist.
1805 9th Dalai Lama the 9th Dalai Lama of Tibet. He was the only Dalai Lama to die in childhood and was part of a string of four Dalai Lamas to die before reaching 22 years of age
1809 Joseph Gungl a Austrian composer, bandmaster, and conductor.
1814 Jacques Nicolas Ernest Germain de Saint-Pierre a French botanist. The plant genus Germainia of the family Poaceae is named in his honor
1819 Philipp Krementz a German Catholic bishop, created Cardinal in 1893.
1823 Karl Schenk a Swiss pastor, politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council. As of 2008, he is still the longest-serving member. Late in life he became one of the first leaders of the Swiss Red Cross
1826 Sereno Watson an American botanist. Graduating from Yale in 1847 in Biology, he drifted through various occupations until, in California, he joined the Clarence King Expedition and eventually became its expedition botanist. Appointed by Asa Gray as assistant in the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University in 1873, he later became its curator, a position he maintained until his death
1826 William Mahone a civil engineer, railroad executive, soldier and politician.
1831 Princess Maria Amélia of Brazil a princess of the Empire of Brazil and a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. Her parents were Emperor Dom Pedro I, the first ruler of Brazil, and Amélie of Leuchtenberg. The only child of her father's second marriage, Maria Amélia was born in France after Pedro I abdicated the Brazilian throne in favor of his son Dom Pedro Before Maria Amélia was a month old, Pedro I went to Portugal to restore the crown of the eldest daughter of his first marriage, Dona Maria He fought a successful war against his brother Miguel I, who had usurped Maria II's throne
1835 Micah Jenkins a Confederate general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded by friendly fire at the Battle of the Wilderness.
1837 Gabriel Dumont (Métis leader) now Western Canada. In 1873 Dumont was elected to the presidency of the short-lived republic of Laurent; afterward he continued to play a leading role among the Métis of the South Saskatchewan River. He played a critical role in bringing Louis Riel back to Canada, in order to pressure the Canadian authorities to pay attention to the troubles of the Métis people. He was adjutant general in the provisional Métis government declared in the District of Saskatchewan in 1885, and commanded the Métis forces in the North-West Rebellion or North West Resistance of 1885
1840 Marie Bracquemond a French Impressionist artist described retrospectively by Henri Focillon in 1928 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt. However, her frequent omission from books on women artists is attributable to the efforts of her husband, Félix Bracquemond, who sought to thwart her development and recognition as an artist. His objections to her career were not based on gender but on the style she adopted—Impressionism
1844 Alexandra of Denmark Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor Edward VII.
1847 Antonín Chittussi a Czech Impressionist landscape painter.
1847 Agathe Backer-Grøndahl a Norwegian pianist and composer. She married the conductor and singing teacher Olaus Andreas Grøndahl in 1875, and was generally known thereafter as Agathe Backer-Grøndahl. Her son Fridtjof Backer-Grøndahl was also a pianist and composer, who promoted his mother's compositions in his concerts
1850 Peter Lange-Müller a Danish composer and pianist. His compositional style was influenced by Danish folk music and by the work of Robert Schumann; Johannes Brahms; and his Danish countrymen, including J.P.E. Hartmann
1854 Muratsan a prolific Armenian writer, known best for writing Gevorg Marzpetuni , a historical novel set during the time of King Ashot II in Armenia in the tenth century.
1864 Carsten Borchgrevink an Anglo-Norwegian polar explorer and a pioneer of modern Antarctic travel. He was the precursor of Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen and other more famous names associated with the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. In 1898–1900 he led the British-financed Southern Cross Expedition, which established a new Farthest South record at 78°50'S
1867 Ignacy Mościcki a Polish chemist, politician, and President of Poland from 1926 to 1939.
1869 Eligiusz Niewiadomski a Polish modernist painter and art critic who belonged to the right-wing National Democratic Party till 1904 and later continued supporting In 1922 he assassinated Poland's first President, Gabriel Narutowicz.
1870 Artur Ivens Ferraz a Portuguese military officer and politician. He served in the Portuguese Expeditionary Force during the Portuguese participation in World War I, in France. He was later Governor-General of Portuguese Mozambique, and was Minister of Trade, Colonies and Finances. He also served as Prime Minister from 8 July 1929 to 21 January 1930. He later occupied the post of general administrator of the Army and head of the Armed Forces
1873 Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck Jhr. Charles Joseph Maria Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was a Dutch nobleman and Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1918 to 1925 and again from 1929 to 1933. He was a member of the Roman Catholic RKSP
1880 Carl Skottsberg a Swedish botanist and explorer of Antarctica.
1880 Akiba Rubinstein a Polish chess Grandmaster at the beginning of the 20th century. He was scheduled to play a match with Emanuel Lasker for the World Chess Championship in 1914, but it was cancelled because of the outbreak of World War In his youth, he astonished the chess world, defeating many famous players, including José Capablanca and Carl Schlechter. His later life, however, was plagued by mental illness
1883 Gregor Schwartz-Bostunitsch a prominent figure in Nazi Germany. He was a German-Russian author in the völkisch movement and became SS-Standartenführer in 1944. His death is unclear