Born on December 10

949 Herman I Duke of Swabia the first Conradine Duke of Swabia , the son of Gebhard, Duke of Lorraine, and a cousin of King Conrad I of Germany.
1376 Edmund Mortimer son of the 3rd Earl Sir Edmund Mortimer , who had a claim to the crown through his mother, Philippa Plantagenet, played a part in the rebellions of the Welsh leader, Owain Glyndŵr, and the Percys, and perished at the siege of Harlech.
1452 Johannes Stöffler a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, priest, maker of astronomical instruments and professor at the University of Tübingen.
1489 Gaston of Foix Duke of Nemours a French military commander noted mostly for his brilliant six-month campaign from 1511 to 1512 during the War of the League of Cambrai.
1538 Giovanni Battista Guarini an Italian poet, dramatist, and diplomat.
1541 Francis Dereham a Tudor courtier whose involvement with Henry VIII's fifth Queen, Catherine Howard in her youth, was a principal cause of the Queen's execution.
1574 Mikołaj Łęczycki a Polish Jesuit, Catholic theologian, writer and mystic.
1588 Isaac Beeckman a Dutch philosopher and scientist, who, through his studies and contact with leading natural philosophers, may have "virtually given birth to modern atomism".
1588 Johann von Aldringen born at Thionville in Lorraine. After travelling as page to a nobleman in France, Italy and the Netherlands, he went to the University of Paris
1610 Adriaen van Ostade a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre works.
1626 George Christian Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the third Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
1643 Johann Adam Reincken a Dutch/German organist and composer. He was one of the most important German composers of the 17th century, a friend of Dieterich Buxtehude and a major influence on Johann Sebastian Bach; however, very few of his works survive to this day
1713 Johann Nicolaus Mempel a German musician.
1731 Franciszek Kareu Very Rev. Franciszek Kareu, S.J. was Temporary Vicar General of the Society of Jesus in Russia from 1799 to 1801. After Pope Pius VII's official approval of the Jesuits' existence in Russia, he was declared Superior General of the Society of Jesus
1745 Thomas Holcroft an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer.
1748 Christoph Friedrich Bretzner a Leipzig merchant famous for writing the libretto to a singspiel Belmont und Constanze, oder Die Entführung aus dem Serail, produced in Berlin and adapted in 1782 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Gottlieb Stephanie as Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Bretzner protested against the adaptations on the grounds that original text was stolen by Gottlieb Stephanie who then modified it for Mozart's performances
1751 George Shaw an English botanist and zoologist.
1753 Louis Philippe comte de Ségur a French diplomat and historian.
1756 Frederick Francis I Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin ruled over the German state of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, first as Duke , and then as Grand Duke.
1765 Jean Gabriel Marchand 1st Count Marchand went from being an attorney to a company commander in the army of the First French Republic in 1791. He fought almost exclusively in Italy throughout the French Revolutionary Wars and served on the staffs of a number of generals. He participated in Napoleon Bonaparte's celebrated 1796-1797 Italian campaign. In 1799, he was with army commander Barthélemy Catherine Joubert when that general was killed at Novi. Promoted to general officer soon after, he transferred to the Rhine theater in 1800
1767 Conrad Quensel a Swedish naturalist.
1768 Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller now a part of Veilsdorf in the District of Hildburghausen, Thuringia.
1771 Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga a Uruguayan priest, naturalist and botanist.
1778 Antonio Francesco Orioli a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
1782 Charles Nicolas Fabvier an ambassador, general and French member of parliament who played a distinguished role in the Greek War of Independence.
1787 Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet a renowned American pioneer in the education of the deaf. Along with Laurent Clerc and Mason Cogswell, he co-founded the first institution for the education of the deaf in North America, and he became its first principal. When opened on April 15, 1817, it was called the "Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons," but it is now known as the American School for the Deaf
1790 Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer a Tyrolean traveller, journalist, politician and historian, best known for his controversial theories concerning the racial origins of the Greeks, and for his travel writings.
1791 Friedrich von Gärtner a German architect.
1795 Anton von Prokesch-Osten an Austrian diplomat, statesman and general.
1800 Philippe Ricord a French physician.
1804 Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory. His name is occasionally written as Carolus Gustavus Iacobus Iacobi in his Latin books, and his first name is sometimes given as Karl
1805 Joseph Škoda a Czech physician, medical professor and dermatologist. Together with Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, he was the founder of the Modern Medical School of Vienna
1805 Karl Ferdinand Sohn a German painter of the Düsseldorf school of painting.
1813 Errico Petrella an Italian opera composer.
1813 Zachariah Chandler Mayor of Detroit , a four-term U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan , and Secretary of the Interior under U.S. President Ulysses Grant. Secretary Chandler, in compliance with President Grant's recommendations and authority, implemented massive reform in the Department of Interior during his tenure in office. Previous Secretary of Interior Columbus Delano, was not a reformer, and had carelessly allowed profiteering to spread throughout the Interior Department. Secretary Chandler fired corrupt agents at the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and fired and replaced the Indian Commissioner and Bureau Clerk. In addition, Secretary Chandler banned "Indian Attorneys" from the Interior Department, who swindled Indian tribes into paying for bogus representation in Washington D.C. Secretary Chandler fully endorsed President Grant's Peace Policy initiative to civilize American Indian tribes
1815 Ada Lovelace an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine. Because of this, she is often described as the world's first computer programmer
1816 August Karl von Goeben a Prussian infantry general. He was awarded the Iron Cross for his service in the Franco-Prussian War
1819 Edward Alfred Cowper a British mechanical engineer.
1819 Felice Orsini an Italian revolutionary and leader of the Carbonari who tried to assassinate Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
1820 Princess Elizabeth of Clarence an infant member of the British royal family as the second daughter and third child of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and his wife , Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. She was a granddaughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and a first cousin of Queen Victoria
1821 Nikolay Nekrasov a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia won him Fyodor Dostoyevsky's admiration and made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Chernyshevsky. He is credited with introducing into Russian poetry ternary meters and the technique of dramatic monologue. As the editor of several literary journals, including Sovremennik, Nekrasov was also singularly successful
1822 César Franck a composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher who worked in Paris during his adult life.
1823 Theodor Kirchner a significant German composer and pianist of the Romantic era.
1824 George MacDonald a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. He was a pioneering figure in the field of fantasy literature and the mentor of fellow writer Lewis Carroll. His writings have been cited as a major literary influence by many notable authors including H. Auden, S. Lewis, R. Tolkien, Walter de la Mare, Nesbit and Madeleine L'Engle. S. Lewis wrote that he regarded MacDonald as his "master": "Picking up a copy of Phantastes one day at a train-station bookstall, I began to read. A few hours later," said Lewis, "I knew that I had crossed a great frontier." K. Chesterton cited The Princess and the Goblin as a book that had "made a difference to my whole existence"
1825 Katarzyna Branicka a Polish noblewoman of the Korczak coat of arms, and art collector. Through her father she was rumoured to be a great-grandchild of Catherine the Great
1826 John Henry Kinkead an American businessman and politician who served as the third Governor of Nevada and the first Governor of the District of Alaska. Spending most of his life in the dry goods business, he was also Treasurer of Nevada Territory, a member of the Nevada Constitutional convention, and the first United States official to hold office in Alaska
1827 Eugene O'Keefe a Canadian businessman and philanthropist. He founded the O'Keefe Brewery Company of Toronto Limited in 1891
1829 Matsumae Takahiro a Japanese daimyo of the Edo period, who ruled the Matsumae Domain. Though he was a tozama daimyo, he served in the Tokugawa Shogunate as a rōjū. His court title was Izu no kami
1829 Alexander Kaminsky a Russian architect working in Moscow and suburbs. One of the most successful and prolific architects of the 1860s–1880s, Kaminsky was a faithful eclecticist, equally skilled in Russian Revival, Neo-Gothic and Renaissance Revival architecture. He is best remembered for the extant Tretyakovsky Proyezd shopping arcade and the cathedral of Nikolo-Ugresh monastery in present-day town of Dzerzhinsky
1830 Emily Dickinson an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life. After she studied at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she spent a short time at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst. Considered an eccentric by the locals, she became known for her penchant for white clothing and her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, even leave her room. Most of her friendships were therefore carried out by correspondence