Died on December 10

1041 Michael IV the Paphlagonian Byzantine Emperor from 11 April 1034 to his death on 10 December 1041. He owed his elevation to Empress Zoe, daughter of Emperor Constantine VIII and wife of Romanos III Argyros
1081 Nikephoros III Botaneiates Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081. He belonged to a family claiming descent from the Byzantine Phokas family
1198 Averroes the Latinized form of Ibn Rushd , full name ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rušd , was a mediæval Andalusian Muslim polymath. He wrote on logic, Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy, theology, the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, psychology, political and Andalusian classical music theory, geography, mathematics, and the mediæval sciences of medicine, astronomy, physics, and celestial mechanics. Averroes was born in Córdoba, Al Andalus , and died at Marrakesh in present-day Morocco. His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba. The 13th-century philosophical movement based on Averroes's work is called Averroism
1307 Theodoric IV Landgrave of Lusatia a member of the House of Wettin. He was Margrave of Lusatia from 1291 to 1303. He was also Margrave of Osterland from 1291 until his death, and Landgrave of Thuringia, as Dietrich I, from 1298 until his death
1310 Stephen I Duke of Bavaria duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 until 1310 as co-regnant of his older brothers Otto III and Louis III.
1362 Frederick III Duke of Austria buried in the Ducal Crypt.
1396 Helena Kantakouzene the Empress consort of John V Palaiologos in the Byzantine Empire.
1475 Paolo Uccello an Italian painter and a mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. Giorgio Vasari in his book Lives of the Artists wrote that Uccello was obsessed by his interest in perspective and would stay up all night in his study trying to grasp the exact vanishing point. He used perspective in order to create a feeling of depth in his paintings and not, as his contemporaries, to narrate different or succeeding stories. His best known works are the three paintings representing the battle of San Romano
1502 Jovan Branković the titular Despot of Serbia from 1496 until his death in 1502. He held the title of despot given to him by Vladislas II of Hungary, and ruled a region known as Racszag under the Kingdom of Hungary. Despot Jovan was the last Serbian Despot of the Branković Dynasty, which was regarded as legitimate successors of the "holy Nemanjić's", they continued the ktetor to Chilandar and other sacred things to protect the nation and the religion. He was proclaimed a Saint in 1505, under the name Saint Despot Jovan
1508 René II Duke of Lorraine Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. He claimed the crown of the Kingdom of Naples and the County of Provence as the Duke of Calabria 1480–1493 and as King of Naples and Jerusalem 1493–1508. He succeeded his uncle John of Vaudémont as Count of Harcourt in 1473, exchanging it for the county of Aumale in 1495. He succeeded as Count of Guise in 1504
1541 Thomas Culpeper a courtier and close friend of Henry VIII, and related to two of his queens, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. He is known to have had many private meetings with Catherine after her marriage, though these may have involved political intrigue only, as the one letter she is known to have written him does not seem to suggest intimacy. But under torture, he confessed to adultery, and both were beheaded for treason
1561 Caspar Schwenckfeld a German theologian, writer, and preacher who became a Protestant Reformer and spiritualist, one of the earliest promoters of the Protestant Reformation in Silesia.
1590 Christina of Denmark a Danish princess who became Duchess-consort of Milan, then Duchess-consort of Lorraine. She was also the Regent of Lorraine in the years 1545–1552 during the minority of her son and a claimant to the thrones of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
1591 Polydore Plasden Saint Polydore Plasden, one of the Catholic Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. A native of London, he studied for the priesthood at Rheims and Rome and was ordained in 1586 before being sent back to England soon after
1591 Edmund Gennings an English martyr, who was executed during the English Reformation for being a Catholic priest. He came from Lichfield, Staffordshire. His name is sometimes spelled Jennings
1591 Swithun Wells an English Roman Catholic martyr who was executed during the reign of Elizabeth I.
1618 Giulio Caccini an Italian composer, teacher, singer, instrumentalist and writer of the very late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. He was one of the founders of the genre of opera, and one of the single most influential creators of the new Baroque style. He was also the father of the composer Francesca Caccini
1624 Ahmad Sirhindi an Indian Islamic scholar of Arab origin, a Hanafi jurist, and a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order. He has been described as the Mujaddid Alf Thānī, meaning the "reviver of the second millennium", for his work in rejuvenating Islam and opposing the heterodoxies prevalent in the time of Mughal Emperor Akbar. While early South Asian scholarship credited him for contributing to conservative trends in Indian Islam, more recent works, notably by ter Haar, Friedman, and Buehler, have pointed to Sirhindi's significant contributions to Sufi epistemology and practices
1626 Edmund Gunter an English clergyman, mathematician, geometer and astronomer of Welsh descent. He is best remembered for his mathematical contributions which include the invention of the Gunter's chain, the Gunter's quadrant, and the Gunter's scale. In 1620, he invented the first successful analog device which he developed to calculate logarithmic tangents
1665 Tarquinio Merula an Italian composer, organist, and violinist of the early Baroque era. Although mainly active in Cremona, stylistically he was a member of the Venetian school. He was one of the most progressive Italian composers of the early 17th century, especially in applying newly developed techniques to sacred music
1679 Francesco Barberini (1597–1679) an Italian Catholic Cardinal. The nephew of Pope Urban VIII , he benefited immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle. He was given various roles within the Vatican administration but his personal cultural interests, particularly in literature and the arts, meant that he became a highly significant patron. His secretary was the antiquarian Cassiano dal Pozzo who was also a discerning patron of the arts. Francesco was the elder brother of Cardinal Antonio Barberini and Taddeo Barberini who became Prince of Palestrina
1718 Stede Bonnet an early 18th-century Barbadian pirate, sometimes called "The Gentleman Pirate" because he was a moderately wealthy landowner before turning to a life of crime. Bonnet was born into a wealthy English family on the island of Barbados, and inherited the family estate after his father's death in 1694. In 1709, he married Mary Allamby, and engaged in some level of militia service. Because of marital problems, and despite his lack of sailing experience, Bonnet decided to turn to piracy in the summer of 1717. He bought a sailing vessel, named it Revenge, and traveled with his paid crew along the Eastern Seaboard of what is now the United States, capturing other vessels and burning other Barbadian ships
1736 António Manoel de Vilhena the 66th Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta from 19 June 1722 to his death in 1736.
1754 Joasaph of Belgorod an 18th-century holy hierarch, bishop of Belgorod from 1748 until his death.
1791 Jacob Frank an 18th-century Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi and also of the biblical patriarch Jacob. The Jewish authorities in Poland excommunicated Frank and his followers due to his heretical doctrines that included deification of himself as a part of a trinity and other controversial concepts such as neo-Carpocratian "purification through transgression"
1808 James Sullivan (governor) a lawyer and politician in Massachusetts. He was an early associate justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, served as the state's attorney general for many years, and as governor of the state from 1807 until his death
1813 Jean Bon Saint-André a French politician of the Revolution era.
1816 Louis Marie Turreau a French general officer of the French Revolutionary Wars. He was most notable as the organisor of the colonnes infernales during the war in the Vendée, which massacred tens of thousands of Vendéens and ravaged the countryside. He attained army command, but without notable military accomplishments. Under the First French Empire, he pursued a career as a high functionary, becoming ambassador to the United States then a baron d'Empire
1818 Hubert Maurer an Austrian painter, draughtsman, and teacher.
1826 Benedikt Schack a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer of the role of Tamino in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute.
1831 Thomas Johann Seebeck a physicist who in 1821 discovered the thermoelectric effect.
1839 Pyotr Kozmitch Frolov a Russian mining engineer and inventor who, in 1809, built the first horse-railway in Russia. He elaborated on various canal projects and other artificial water constructions. Frolov also contributed to the development of scientific research and to the culture of the Altay region. His activities as a head of the Kolyvano-Voskresensk factories promoted a great advance of Russian technology in the beginning of the 20th century
1842 Rowland Hill 1st Viscount Hill General Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill, GCB GCH served in the Napoleonic Wars as a trusted brigade, division and corps commander under the command of the Duke of Wellington. He became Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in 1828
1846 Federico Confalonieri an Italian revolutionist.
1850 Józef Bem a Polish general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European nationalisms. Like Tadeusz Kościuszko and Jan Henryk Dąbrowski , Bem fought outside Poland's borders for the future of Poland; anywhere his leadership and military skills were needed
1850 François Sulpice Beudant born in Paris.
1851 Karl Drais a German inventor, who invented the Laufmaschine , also later called the velocipede, draisine or draisienne , also nicknamed the dandy horse. This incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanized personal transport. Drais also invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard in 1821, later developed into an early stenograph machine, and a wood-saving cooker including the earliest hay chest
1857 Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the daughter of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. Her father was the second son of Francis Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf
1858 Joseph Paul Gaimard a French naval surgeon and naturalist.
1861 John O'Donovan (scholar) an Irish language scholar from Ireland.
1864 Henry Schoolcraft an American geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi River. He is also noted for his major six-volume study of American Indians in the 1850s
1865 Sergey Volkonsky a Russian Major General and Decembrist from the aristocratic Volkonsky family.
1865 Leopold I of Belgium from 21 July 1831 the first King of the Belgians, following Belgium's independence from the Netherlands. He was the founder of the Belgian line of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His children included Leopold II of Belgium and Carlota of Mexico, Empress-Consort of Maximilian I of Mexico. He was a maternal uncle and adviser of Queen Victoria
1867 Sakamoto Ryōma a prominent figure in the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate during the Bakumatsu period in Japan. One of his most noted accomplishments during this period was the negotiation of peace between Chōshū and Satsuma, two powerful provinces that had long been hostile to each other, and then unite them against the Bakufu, the government that supported the Tokugawa shogun. Ryōma frequently used the alias Saidani Umetarō during this period, as he was often hunted by Bakufu supporters, such as members of the Shinsengumi. He was ultimately attacked and murdered, along with his companion Nakaoka Shintarō, at an inn in Kyoto. Although many suspects have been named, the identities of the assassins have never been confirmed
1868 Friedrich Wilhelm Krummacher a German Reformed clergyman.
1872 Étienne Arnal a French comic actor.
1875 Henry William Stisted Lieutenant-General Sir Henry William Stisted, KCB , served as the first Lieutenant Governor of Ontario after Confederation, from 1867 to 1868.
1875 Ferenc Toldy a German-Hungarian literary critic.
1877 Federico Ricci an Italian composer, particularly of operas. Born in Naples, he was the younger brother of Luigi Ricci, with whom he collaborated on several works
1878 Henry Wells an American businessman important in the history of both the American Express Company and Wells Fargo & Company.