Born on December 11

722 Fergal mac Máele Dúin High King of Ireland. Fergal belonged to the Cenél nEógain sept of the northern Uí Néill. He was the son of Máel Dúin mac Máele Fithrich , a King of Ailech, and great grandson of the high king Áed Uaridnach. He belonged to the Cenél maic Ercae branch of the Cenél nEógain and was King of Ailech from 700 to 722
1445 Eberhard I Duke of Württemberg From 1459 until 1495 he was Count Eberhard From July 1495 he was the first Duke of Württemberg. He is also known as Eberhard im Bart
1465 Ashikaga Yoshihisa the 9th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1473 to 1489 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshihisa was the son of the eighth shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa
1475 Pope Leo X Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489
1566 Manuel Cardoso a Portuguese composer and organist. With Duarte Lobo and John IV of Portugal, he represented the "golden age" of Portuguese polyphony
1599 Pieter Codde Jacobsz. Codde was a Dutch painter of genre works, guardroom scenes and portraits
1610 False Dmitry II the second of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich, the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible. The real Dmitry had died under uncertain circumstances, most likely an assassination in 1591 at the age of nine at his widowed mother's appanage residence in Uglich
1656 Johann Michael Rottmayr an Austrian painter. He was the first notable baroque painter north of Italy
1679 Pier Antonio Micheli a Catholic priest and noted Italian botanist, professor of botany in Pisa, curator of the Orto Botanico di Firenze, author of Nova plantarum genera iuxta Tournefortii methodum disposita. He discovered the spores of mushrooms, was a leading authority on cryptogams, and coined several important genera of microfungi including Aspergillus and Botrytis
1681 Emanuele d'Astorga an Italian composer known mainly for his Stabat Mater.
1709 Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans Queen consort of Spain as the wife of King Louis I.
1712 Francesco Algarotti a Venetian polymath, philosopher, poet, essayist, anglophile, art critic and art collector. He was "one of the first Esprits cavaliers of the age," a man of broad knowledge, an expert in Newtonianism, architecture and music and a friend of most of the leading authors of his times: Voltaire, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis and the atheist Julien Offray de La Mettrie
1724 Charles Theodore Elector of Bavaria Count Palatine and Duke of Bavaria reigned as Prince-Elector and Count palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as Prince-Elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777, until his death. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Sulzbach, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach
1725 George Mason an American Patriot, statesman and a delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention. Along with James Madison, he is called the "Father of the United States Bill of Rights." For these reasons he is considered one of the "Founding Fathers" of the United States
1734 Paul Joseph Barthez a French physician, physiologist, and encyclopedist who developed a take on the biological theory known as vitalism.
1743 Bernhard Erasmus von Deroy from the Electorate of the Palatinate became a noted general officer in the army of Bavaria. His military career began shortly after the start of the Seven Years' War. During the French Revolutionary Wars he first served on the side of the Coalition against the French revolutionaries, then fought as an ally of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. Deroy and his colleague, Karl Philipp von Wrede, were dominant personalities in the Bavarian military during the era of Napoleon Bonaparte
1750 Isaac Shelby the first and fifth Governor of the U.S. state of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also a soldier in Lord Dunmore's War, the Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812. While governor, he personally led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have been named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinson's The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto "United we stand, divided we fall"
1756 Anton Tomaž Linhart a Carniolan playwright and historian, best known as the author of the first comedy and theatrical play in general in Slovene, Županova Micka. He is also considered the father of Slovene historiography, since he was the first historian to write a history of all Slovenes as a unit, rejecting the previous concept which focused on single historical provinces. He was the first one to define the Slovenes as a separate ethnic group and set the foundations of the Slovene ethnography
1758 Carl Friedrich Zelter a German composer, conductor and teacher of music. Working in his father's bricklaying business, Zelter attained mastership in that profession, and was a musical autodidact
1760 Pierre Petitot a French sculptor.
1761 Gian Domenico Romagnosi an Italian philosopher, economist and jurist.
1763 Stanislas-Marie Maillard a captain of the Bastille Volunteers. As a national guardsman, he participated in the attack on the Bastille and accompanied the women who marched to Versailles on October 5, 1789. Maillard testified in court to the events at Versailles
1770 James Hogg a Scottish poet, novelist and essayist who wrote in both Scots and English. As a young man he worked as a shepherd and farmhand, and was largely self-educated through reading. He was a friend of many of the great writers of his day, including Sir Walter Scott, of whom he later wrote an unauthorized biography. He became widely known as the "Ettrick Shepherd", a nickname under which some of his works were published, and the character name he was given in the widely read series Noctes Ambrosianae, published in Blackwood's Magazine. He is best known today for his novel The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner. His other works include the long poem The Queen's Wake , his collection of songs Jacobite Reliques , and his two novels The Three Perils of Man , and The Three Perils of Woman
1781 David Brewster a Scottish physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, writer, historian of science and university principal.
1783 Max von Schenkendorf a German poet, born in Tilsit and educated at Königsberg. During the War of Liberation, in which he took an active part, Schenkendorf was associated with Arndt and Körner in the writing of patriotic songs. His poems were published as Gedichte , Poetischer Nachlass , and Sämtliche Gedichte. For his Life, consult Hagen ; Knaake ; von Klein, von Schenkendorf
1792 Joseph Mohr an Austrian Roman Catholic priest and writer, who wrote the words to the Christmas carol "Silent Night".
1793 Pietro Antonio Coppola an Italian composer and conductor. Born in Castrogiovanni, he was trained by his father and at the Naples Conservatory. He is chiefly known for his many operas, of which his most famous, Nina pazza per amore, premiered at the Teatro Valle in Rome in February 1835. While his works have rarely been performed after the 19th century, during his lifetime they enjoyed success in major opera houses in Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain. As a conductor he was particularly active at the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos in Lisbon. He died in Catania at the age of 82
1801 Christian Dietrich Grabbe a German dramatist of the Vormärz era. He wrote many historical plays conceiving a disillusioned and pessimistic world view, with some shrill scenes. Heinrich Heine saw him as one of Germany's foremost dramatists, calling him "a drunken Shakespeare"
1803 Hector Berlioz a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 songs. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and many others
1805 George Denison (priest) a Church of England priest.
1806 Otto Wilhelm Hermann von Abich a German mineralogist and geologist. Full member of St Petersburg Academy of Sciences
1810 Alfred de Musset a French dramatist, poet, and novelist. Along with his poetry, he is known for writing La Confession d'un enfant du siècle from 1836
1816 Anton Sommer a dialect poet from Thuringia. He was born and died in Rudolstadt
1822 Karl Heinrich Weizsäcker a German Protestant theologian.
1822 John Nicholson (East India Company officer) a Victorian era military officer known for his role in British India. A charismatic and authoritarian figure, Nicholson created a legend for himself as a political officer under Henry Lawrence in the frontier provinces of the British Empire in India. He was instrumental in the settlement of the North-West Frontier and played a noted part in the Indian Mutiny
1824 Víctor Balaguer i Cirera born at Barcelona on 11 December 1824, and was educated at the university of his native city.
1826 William Waddington a French statesman who was Prime Minister of France in 1879.
1829 Jean Antoine Arthur Gris a French botanist who was a native of Châtillon-sur-Seine, in the department of Côte-d'Or.
1830 Kamehameha V born as Lot Kapuāiwa, reigned as monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1863 to 1872. His motto was "Onipa`a": immovable, firm, steadfast or determined; he worked diligently for his people and kingdom and was described as the last great traditional chief. His full Hawaiian name prior to his succession was Lota Liholiho Kapuāiwa Kalanimakua Kalanikupuapaikalaninui Aliʻiolani Kalani-a-Kekūanaōʻa
1835 Benjamin Smith Lyman an American mining engineer, surveyor, and an amateur linguist and anthropologist.
1836 Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer a British colonial administrator and diplomat.
1838 Emil Rathenau a German entrepreneur and industrialist, a leading figure in the early European electrical industry.
1838 John Labatt a Canadian businessman and brewer.
1838 Whitney Eugene Thayer an American organist and composer.
1843 Robert Koch a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist. The founder of modern bacteriology, he is known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease. In addition to his trail-blazing studies on these diseases, Koch created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made key discoveries in public health. His research led to the creation of Koch’s postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology. As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905
1845 Spiridon Brusina a Croatian malacologist.
1849 Ellen Key a Swedish difference feminist writer on many subjects in the fields of family life, ethics and education and was an important figure in the Modern Breakthrough movement. She was an early advocate of a child-centered approach to education and parenting, and was also a suffragist
1850 Mary Victoria Douglas-Hamilton the Lanarkshire-born, Scottish great-grandmother of Prince Rainier III of Monaco, the fashion designer Prince Egon von Fürstenberg, the socialite and actress Princess Ira von Fürstenberg and the Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Karel Schwarzenberg. She was the daughter of William Alexander Anthony Archibald Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton and of his wife, Princess Marie Amelie Elizabeth Caroline of Baden. Through her maternal grandmother, she was a third cousin of Emperor Napoléon III of France. She was a first cousin of Queen Carola of Saxony, Queen Stephanie of Portugal, King Carol I of Romania, and Princess Marie, Countess of Flanders
1851 Heinrich Zimmer (Celticist) a German Celticist and Indologist.
1853 Jacob Wackernagel a Swiss linguist, Indo-Europeanist and scholar of Sanskrit. He was born in Basel, son of the philologist Wilhelm Wackernagel