Born on December 12

926 William II Duke of Aquitaine the Count of Auvergne and Duke of Aquitaine from 918 to his death, succeeding his uncle William I.
1298 Albert II Duke of Austria Duke of Austria.
1418 Albert VI Archduke of Austria also known as the Prodigal, from the House of Habsburg was, with his elder brother Emperor Frederick III, an Archduke of Inner Austria from 1424 and of Austria from 1457 until his death. According to tradition, Albert was the exact opposite of Frederick, energetic and inclined to thoughtlessness
1526 Álvaro de Bazán 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz a Spanish admiral.
1541 Johann Bauhin a Swiss botanist, born in Basel. He was the son of physician Jean Bauhin and the brother of physician and botanist Gaspard Bauhin
1574 Adam Wenceslaus Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn from 1579 until his death.
1574 Anne of Denmark Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland as the wife of James VI and I.
1610 Basil of Ostrog a Montenegrin saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
1612 Janusz Radziwiłł (1612–55) a notable Polish noble and magnate. Throughout his life he occupied a number of posts in the state administration, including that of Court Chamberlain of Lithuania and Field Hetman of Lithuania. He was also a voivode of Vilna Voivodeship, as well as a starost of Samogitia, Kamieniec, Kazimierz and Sejwy
1685 Lodovico Giustini an Italian composer and keyboard player of the late Baroque and early Classical eras. He was the first known composer ever to write music for the piano
1712 Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, governor and de facto sovereign of the Austrian Netherlands, and sometime duke of Lorraine.
1715 Gennaro Manna an Italian composer based in Naples. His compositional output includes 13 operas and more than 150 sacred works, including several oratorios. See Italian Wikipedia
1716 Leopoldine Marie of Anhalt-Dessau the ninth child of Prince Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau and his wife, Anna Louise Föhse. She married on 13 February 1739 the last margrave Frederick Henry of Brandenburg-Schwedt. After 1788, her Schwedt Castle was used by the Prussian royal family as a summer residence
1724 Samuel Hood 1st Viscount Hood a British admiral known particularly for his service in the American Revolutionary War and French Revolutionary Wars. He acted as a mentor to Horatio Nelson
1728 Pietro Verri an Italian philosopher, economist, historian and writer.
1731 Erasmus Darwin an English physician. One of the key thinkers of the Midlands Enlightenment, he was also a natural philosopher, physiologist, slave-trade abolitionist, inventor and poet. His poems included much natural history, including a statement of evolution and the relatedness of all forms of life. He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, which includes his grandsons Charles Darwin and Francis Galton. Darwin was also a founding member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, a discussion group of pioneering industrialists and natural philosophers. He turned down George III's invitation to be a physician to the King
1733 Christian Friedrich Schwan a German publisher and bookseller.
1745 John Jay an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States.
1750 Lady Anne Barnard born at Balcarres House, Fife, Scotland. She was author of the ballad Auld Robin Gray and an accomplished travel writer, artist and socialite of the period. Her five-year residence in Cape Town, South Africa, although brief, had a significant impact on the cultural and social life of the time
1753 William Beechey an English portrait-painter.
1766 Nikolay Karamzin a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic. He is best remembered for his History of the Russian State, a 12-volume national history
1767 Lord Charles Somerset a British soldier, politician and colonial administrator. He was governor of the Cape Colony, South Africa, from 1814 to 1826
1772 Bertrand Clausel a marshal of France.
1773 Robert Surcouf a French privateer and slave trader who operated in the Indian Ocean between 1789 and 1801, and again from 1807 to 1808, capturing over 40 prizes, while amassing a large fortune as a ship-owner, both from privateering and from commerce.
1777 Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville a French zoologist and anatomist.
1779 Madeleine Sophie Barat a French saint of the Catholic Church and was the founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart.
1783 Ner Middleswarth a Congressman from Pennsylvania, and a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
1786 William L. Marcy an American statesman, who served as U.S. Senator and the 11th Governor of New York, and as the U.S. Secretary of War and U.S. Secretary of State
1787 Thomas Hodgskin an English socialist writer on political economy, critic of capitalism and defender of free trade and early trade unions.
1791 Marie Louise Duchess of Parma an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death. She was Napoleon's second wife and, as such, Empress of the French from 1810 to 1814
1792 Alexander Ypsilantis a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family, a prince of the Danubian Principalities, a senior officer of the Imperial Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars, and a leader of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization that coordinated the beginning of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. He should not be confused with his namesake grandfather, a Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia at the end of the 18th century
1797 Pierre Léonard Vander Linden a Belgian entomologist.
1798 Friedrich August Grotefend a German philologist. Grotefend was a relative of Georg Friedrich Grotefend, who deciphered the cuneiform writing
1799 Karl Bryullov a Russian painter. He is regarded as a key figure in transition from the Russian neoclassicism to romanticism
1801 John of Saxony a King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin.
1803 James Challis an English clergyman, physicist and astronomer. Plumian Professor and director of the Cambridge Observatory, he investigated a wide range of physical phenomena though made few lasting contributions outside astronomy. He is best remembered for his missed opportunity to discover the planet Neptune in 1846
1805 William Lloyd Garrison a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded in 1831 and published in Massachusetts until slavery was abolished by Constitutional amendment after the American Civil War. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the woman suffrage movement
1805 Henry Wells an American businessman important in the history of both the American Express Company and Wells Fargo & Company.
1806 Stand Watie a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He commanded the Confederate Indian cavalry of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, made up mostly of Cherokee, Muskogee and Seminole, and was the final Confederate general in the field to surrender at war's end
1807 Édouard Dapples a Swiss politician, syndic of Lausanne from 1843 to 1848 and from 1857 to 1867, member of the Swiss National Council from 1851 to 1854 and from 1857 to 1866, he presided this assembly in 1861. Avenue Édouard Dapples in Lausanne is named after him
1812 John Sandfield Macdonald the first Premier of the province of Ontario, one of the four founding provinces created at the confederation of Canada in 1867. He served as both premier and Attorney-General of Ontario from July 16, 1867, to December 20, 1871
1814 Juan Prim 1st Marquis of los Castillejos a Spanish general and statesman.
1815 Édouard-Jean-Étienne Deligny a French general.
1818 Ivan Delyanov a Russian statesman of Armenian descent.
1820 Şevkefza Sultan the wife of Sultan Abdülmecid I and Valide Sultan to their son Murad V.
1820 Carolina Coronado a Spanish author considered the equivalent of contemporary Romantic authors like Rosalía de Castro. She became so popular as to merit the title "the female Bécquer."
1821 Gustave Flaubert an influential French writer. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary , for his Correspondence, and for his scrupulous devotion to his style and aesthetics. The celebrated short story writer Maupassant was a protégé of Flaubert
1823 Władysław Ludwik Anczyc a Polish poet and translator.
1832 Peter Ludwig Mejdell Sylow a Norwegian mathematician who proved foundational results in group theory. He was born and died in Christiania
1837 John Richard Green an English historian.