Died on December 12

884 Carloman II the youngest son of King Louis the Stammerer and Ansgarde of Burgundy, and became king, jointly with his brother Louis III of France, on his father's death in 879.
894 Guy III of Spoleto the Margrave of Camerino from 880 and then Duke of Spoleto and Camerino from 883. He was crowned King of Italy in 889 and Holy Roman Emperor in 891. He died in 894 while fighting for control of the Italian peninsula
1101 Al-Musta'li the ninth Fatimid Caliph, and believed by the Mustaali Ismaili sect to be the 19th imam. Al-Musta‘li was made caliph by the vizier Malik al-Afdal Shahanshah as the successor to al-Mustansir. By and large, al-Musta‘li was subordinate to Malik al-Afdal. One complication with the selection of al-Musta‘li was that his older brother Nizar was considered by Nizar's supporters to be the rightful heir to the throne. This led to a power struggle within the Fatimids, and although Nizar's revolt was unsuccessful , the break from the rules of succession caused a schism amongst the Ismaili Shia. In Seljuk Syria and Persia, the Nizari sect developed, one branch of which is known to history as the Hashshashin. Supporters of Musta'li's imamate became known as the Mustaali sect
1112 Tancred Prince of Galilee a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch. Tancred had a great-grandfather with the same name, Tancred of Hauteville; since both Tancreds were from the house of Hauteville, they may be confused
1154 Vicelinus a German bishop of Oldenburg in Holstein who was considered the apostle of Holstein.
1204 Maimonides a preeminent medieval Spanish, Sephardic Jewish philosopher, astronomer and one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages. He was born in Córdoba , Almoravid Empire on Passover Eve, 1135 or 1138, and died in Egypt on December 12, 1204. Location of his death is possibly Tiberias, where his son and his tomb are set. There are several indications to the authenticity of the location, and traditions about the occasion of his death in Tiberias. He was a rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Morocco and Egypt
1204 Waleran de Beaumont 4th Earl of Warwick the younger son of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and Gundred de Warrenne, daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois. He was also known as Walerian de Newburg
1212 Geoffrey (archbishop of York) an illegitimate son of Henry II, King of England, who became Bishop-elect of Lincoln and Archbishop of York. The identity of his mother is uncertain, but she may have been named Ykenai. Geoffrey held a number of minor clerical offices before becoming Bishop of Lincoln in 1173, although he was not ordained a priest until 1189. In 1173–1174 he led a campaign in the north of England to help put down a rebellion by his legitimate half-brothers; this campaign led to the capture of the King of Scots. By 1182 Pope Lucius III had ordered that Geoffrey either resign Lincoln or be consecrated; he chose to resign, and became Chancellor instead. He was the only one of Henry II's sons present at the king's death
1475 Joan of Portugal Queen consort of Castile as the second wife of King Henry IV of Castile and a Portuguese infanta, the posthumous daughter of King Edward of Portugal and his wife Eleanor of Aragon. She was born in the Quinta do Monte Olivete, Almada six months after the death of her father
1476 Frederick I Elector Palatine a Count Palatine of the Rhine and Elector Palatine from the House of Wittelsbach in 1451 - 1476.
1478 Johannes Mentelin a pioneering German book printer and bookseller active during the period during which incunabula were printed. In 1466, he published the first printed Bible in the German language, the Mentelin Bible
1569 Philip II Metropolitan of Moscow a Russian Orthodox monk, who became Metropolitan of Moscow during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. He was one of a few Metropolitans who dared openly to contradict royal authority, and it is widely believed that the Tsar had him murdered on that account. He is venerated as a saint and martyr in the Eastern Orthodox Church
1586 Stephen Báthory Voivode of Transylvania , Prince of Transylvania , from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland.
1622 Bartolomeo Manfredi an Italian painter, a leading member of the Caravaggisti of the early 17th century.
1633 Hortensio Félix Paravicino a Spanish preacher and poet from the noble house of Pallavicini.
1681 Hermann Conring a German intellectual. He made significant contributions to the study of medicine, politics and law
1685 John Pell an English mathematician.
1696 Johan Caspar von Cicignon a Luxembourg-born soldier and military engineer who spent most of his career in the service of Denmark–Norway. He is most associated with the reconstruction of Trondheim, Norway after the great fire of 1681
1702 Olaus Rudbeck a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university. He was born in Västerås, the son of Bishop Johannes Rudbeckius, who was personal chaplain to King Gustavus Adolphus, and the father of botanist Olof Rudbeck the Younger. Rudbeck is primarily known for his contributions in two fields: human anatomy and linguistics, but he was also accomplished in many other fields including music and botany
1738 Teodor Andrzej Potocki a Polish nobleman , Primate of Poland, interrex in 1733.
1751 Henry St John 1st Viscount Bolingbroke an English politician, government official and political philosopher. He was a leader of the Tories, and supported the Church of England politically despite his antireligious views and opposition to theology. In 1715 he supported the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 which sought to overthrow the new king George Escaping to France he became foreign minister for the Pretender. He was attainted for treason, but reversed course and was allowed to return to England in 1723. He is best known as the philosopher of the Country Party
1766 Johann Christoph Gottsched a German philosopher, author, and critic. For about thirty years, he exercised an almost undisputed literary dictatorship in Germany. But by his later years, his name had become a by-word for foolish pedantry
1777 Albrecht von Haller a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist and poet. A pupil of Herman Boerhaave, he is often referred to as "the father of modern physiology."
1778 Hermann Raupach a German composer.
1785 Edme-Louis Daubenton a French naturalist.
1785 Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1788 Frederick Henry Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt the last owner of the Prussian secundogeniture of Brandenburg-Schwedt. His father was Margrave Philip William; his mother was Charlotte Johanna, a daughter of Prince John George II of Anhalt-Dessau and Princess Henriette Catherine of Nassau
1790 Mikhail Shcherbatov a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. His view of human nature and social progress is kindred to Swift's pessimism. He was known as a statesman, historian, writer and philosopher, and was one of the most visible representatives of the nascent Russian conservatism during the second half of the 18th century
1791 Etteilla the French occultist who was the first to popularise tarot divination to a wide audience , and therefore the first professional tarot occultist known to history who made his living by card divination. Etteilla published his ideas of the correspondences between the tarot, astrology, and the four classical elements and four humors, and was the first to issue a revised tarot deck specifically designed for occult purposes
1792 Arthur Lee (diplomat) a physician and opponent of slavery in colonial Virginia in North America who served as an American diplomat during the American Revolutionary War. He was educated in medicine and law at the University of Edinburgh and in London, respectively. After passing the bar, he practiced law in London for several years. He stayed in London during the Revolutionary War, representing the colonies to Britain and France and also serving as an American spy to track their activities. After his return to Virginia, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress
1792 Denis Fonvizin a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today. His main works are two satirical comedies which mock contemporary Russian gentry
1814 Jan Konopka a lieutenant in the Kościuszko Uprising, captain of the Polish Legions in Italy, regiment commander in the Legion of the Vistula, as well as general of the French Army and the Duchy of Warsaw. Konopka has been described as "a brave man with cold mind in combat."
1817 Tekle Giyorgis I Emperor of Ethiopia intermittently between 20 July 1779 and June 1800, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the youngest son of Yohannes II and Woizoro Sancheviyer, and the brother of Tekle Haymanot II
1821 Alexandru Callimachi Prince of Moldavia during the period of 6 May 1795 through 18 March 1799.
1821 Scarlat Callimachi (hospodar) Grand Dragoman of the Sublime Porte 1801–1806, Prince of Moldavia between August 24, 1806 – October 26, 1806, August 4, 1807 – June 13, 1810, September 17, 1812 – June 1819 and Prince of Wallachia between February 1821 – June 1821.
1829 John Lansing Jr. an American lawyer and politician. He was the uncle of Gerrit Lansing
1832 Andrea Nozzari an Italian tenor.
1836 Giuseppe Farinelli an Italian composer active at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century who excelled in writing opera buffas. Considered the successor and most successful imitator of Domenico Cimarosa, the greatest of his roughly 60 operas include I riti d'Efeso , La contadina bizzarra and Ginevra degli Almieri. More than 2/3 of his operas were produced between 1800-1810 at the height of his popularity. With the arrival of Gioachino Rossini his operas became less desirable with the public, and by 1817 his operas were no longer performed. His other compositions include 3 piano forte sonatas, 3 oratorios, 11 cantatas, 5 masses, 2 Te Deums, a Stabat mater, a Salve regina, a Tantum ergo, numerous motets, and several other sacred works
1837 Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck a German botanist and pharmacologist who was a native of Schloss Reichenberg in Reichelsheim. He was a younger brother to naturalist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck
1838 Karl Philipp von Wrede born at Heidelberg, the youngest of three children of Ferdinand Josef Wrede , created in 1791 1st Freiherr von Wrede, and wife, married on 21 March 1746, Anna Katharina Jünger , by whom he had two more children Luise, Freiin von Wrede , married to Philipp, Freiherr von Horn , and Georg, Freiherr von Wrede , married on 17 January 1808 to Julie Zarka de Lukafalva , without issue.
1840 Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol a French psychiatrist.
1841 Denis-Luc Frayssinous a French prelate and statesman, orator and writer. He was the eighth member elected to occupy Seat 3 of the Académie française in 1822
1843 William I of the Netherlands a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
1846 Charles Alexandre Lesueur a French naturalist, artist and explorer.
1847 Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen the child of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and his wife, Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was the wife of Prince Paul of Wurttemberg and mother to his five children
1847 James Kent an American jurist and legal scholar. He was the author of Commentaries on American Law
1849 Marc Isambard Brunel a French-born engineer who settled in England. He preferred the name Isambard, but is generally known to history as Marc to avoid confusion with his more famous son Isambard Kingdom Brunel. His most famous achievement was the construction of the Thames Tunnel
1851 Joel Roberts Poinsett an American physician and diplomat. He was the first U.S. agent in South America, a member of the South Carolina legislature and the United States House of Representatives, the first United States Minister to Mexico , a U.S. Secretary of War under Martin Van Buren, and a cofounder of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science and the Useful Arts , as well as the eponym of Poinsett County, Arkansas; Poinsett Highway, Poinsett Bridge, and Poinsett State Park in South Carolina; Lake Poinsett in South Dakota; and the poinsettia, a popular Christmas plant
1858 Jacques Viger (1787–1858) an antiquarian, archaeologist, and the first mayor of the Canadian city of Montreal, Quebec.
1870 August Meineke born at Soest in the Duchy of Westphalia. He was father-in-law to philologist Theodor Bergk