Born on December 13

1272 Frederick III of Sicily the regent and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death. He was the third son of Peter III of Aragon and served in the War of the Sicilian Vespers on behalf of his father and brothers, Alfonso and James. He was confirmed as King of Trinacria by the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302. His reign saw important constitutional reforms: the Constitutiones regales, Capitula alia, and Ordinationes generales
1363 Jean Gerson a French scholar, educator, reformer, and poet, Chancellor of the University of Paris, a guiding light of the conciliar movement and one of the most prominent theologians at the Council of Constance, was born at the village of Gerson, in the bishopric of Reims in Champagne.
1484 Paul Speratus a Catholic priest who became a Protestant preacher and song-writer. In 1523, he helped Martin Luther to create the First Lutheran hymnal, published in 1524 and called Achtliederbuch
1520 Pope Sixtus V Pope from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. To date, he is the last pontiff to take the pontifical name of "Sixtus" upon his election
1533 Eric XIV of Sweden King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. Eric XIV was the son of Gustav I and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. He was also ruler of Estonia, after its conquest by Sweden in 1561
1553 Henry IV of France King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon
1560 Maximilien de Béthune Duke of Sully the doughty soldier, French minister, staunch Huguenot and faithful right-hand man who assisted king Henry IV of France in the rule of France. Historians emphasize Sully's role in building a strong centralized administrative system in France using coercion and highly effective new administrative techniques. His policies were not original, and most were reversed. Historians have also studied his neo-Stoicism and his ideas about virtue, prudence, and discipline
1585 William Drummond of Hawthornden a Scottish poet.
1619 Andrij Savka a Lemko bandit and folk hero from Dukla. He was born in 1619 in Stebník. In 1651, he led 500 men as part of a peasant revolt known as the Kostka-Napierski Uprising. He was the son of a church cantor, and had some education
1640 Robert Plot an English naturalist, first Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford, and the first keeper of the Ashmolean Museum.
1662 Francesco Bianchini an Italian philosopher and scientist. He worked for the curia of three popes, including being camiere d`honore of Clement XI, and secretary of the commission for the reform of the calendar, working on the method to calculate the astronomically correct date for Easter in a given year
1678 Yongzheng Emperor the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and the third Qing emperor from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known as despotic, efficient, and vigorous
1720 Carlo Gozzi an Italian playwright.
1724 Franz Aepinus a German and Russian Empire natural philosopher. Aepinus is best known for his researches, theoretical and experimental, in electricity and magnetism
1780 Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements.
1784 Archduke Louis of Austria the 14th child of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain.
1787 Mélesville a French dramatist.
1790 Giuseppe Marco Fieschi the chief conspirator in an attempt on the life of King Louis-Philippe of France in July 1835.
1791 Phillip Parker King an early explorer of the Australian and Patagonian coasts.
1792 Edward John Trelawny best known for his friendship with the Romantic poets Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron. Trelawny was born in England to a family of modest income but extensive ancestral history. Though his father became wealthy while he was a child, Edward had an antagonistic relationship with him. After an unhappy childhood, he was sent away to a school. He was assigned as a volunteer in the Royal Navy shortly before he turned thirteen
1794 Robert Kaye Greville an English mycologist, bryologist, and botanist. He was an accomplished artist and illustrator of natural history. In addition to art and science he was interested in causes like abolitionism, capital punishment, keeping Sunday special and the temperance movement. He has a mountain in Queensland named after him
1797 Heinrich Heine a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of Lieder by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. Heine's later verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and irony. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities. Heine spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris
1804 Joseph Howe a Nova Scotian journalist, politician, and public servant. He is one of Nova Scotia's greatest and best-loved politicians. His considerable skills as a journalist and writer have made him a Nova Scotia legend
1805 Johann von Lamont a Scottish-German astronomer and physicist.
1805 Pierre Deland a Swedish actor and theatre director. As director of the Deland travelling theatre, he was one of the most famous artists in both Sweden and Finland during the mid 19th century. His troupe inaugurated several of the first theatres founded in the Swedish and Finnish towns during this period. They toured between the theatres of the countryside. Such theatres did not have a standing ensemble and therefore regarded these troupes as their regular staff
1809 Johann Heinrich Kurtz a German Lutheran theologian.
1814 Ana Néri a Brazilian nurse, considered the first in her country. She is best known for her volunteer work with the Triple Alliance during the Paraguayan War
1816 Werner von Siemens a German inventor and industrialist. Siemens’s name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens. He was also the founder of the electrical and telecommunications company Siemens
1818 Mary Todd Lincoln the wife of the sixteenth President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, and was First Lady of the United States from 1861 to 1865.
1821 Leon Pinsker a physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion, also known as Hibbat Zion movement.
1821 Joseph Noel Paton a Scottish artist.
1823 Ferdinand Büchner a German flautist and composer.
1825 Gerolamo Induno an Italian painter known mostly for his genre works and military scenes.
1833 Gregorio Grassi honored as a Roman Catholic martyr and saint.
1834 Gustav Friedrich Keleti a Hungarian painter and art critic.
1836 Franz von Lenbach a German painter of Realist style. He travelled to Italy and Spain and completed many notable portraits
1838 Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet a French botanist and mycologist born in Montmirey-la-Ville.
1841 Julius Ruthardt a German violinist and composer.
1843 George Stephănescu a Romanian composer, one of the main figures in Romanian national opera.
1846 Nikolai Yaroshenko a Ukrainian painter.
1848 Enrico Forlanini an Italian engineer, inventor and aeronautical pioneer, well known for his works on helicopters, aircraft, hydrofoils and dirigibles. He was born in Milan. His older brother Carlo Forlanini was a famous Italian physician
1850 William Chapman (poet) a Canadian poet.
1854 Herman Bavinck a Dutch Reformed theologian and churchman.
1856 Svetozar Boroević an Austro-Hungarian field marshal of Croatian Serb origin who was described as one of the finest defensive strategists of the First World War. He came from Croatia but spent his entire life in the imperial military, becoming a nobleman as Baron von Bojna, and later rising to the rank of Field Marshal before the end of the First World War in 1918
1860 Lucien Guitry a French actor.
1863 Józef Łukaszewicz a Polish physicist, geologist and mineralogist, as well as a 19th-century revolutionary. During his life he took part in a failed attempt to assassinate tsar Alexander III of Russia, served a lifetime sentence in Shlisselburg prison, was a professor at numerous universities, headed the Petersburg Institute of Geography and a chair in the Stefan Batory University of Wilno
1865 Ángel Ganivet García , Spanish writer and diplomat. He was considered a precursor to the Generation of '98
1867 Kristian Birkeland a Norwegian scientist. He is best remembered as the person who first elucidated the nature of the Aurora borealis. In order to fund his research on the aurorae, he invented the electromagnetic cannon and the Birkeland-Eyde process of fixing nitrogen from the air. Birkeland was nominated for the Nobel Prize seven times
1870 Edward LeSaint an American silent film actor and director who acted in over 300 films and directed over 90 films.
1871 Emily Carr a Canadian artist and writer heavily inspired by the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. One of the first painters in Canada to adopt a modernist and post-impressionist painting style, Carr did not receive widespread recognition for her work until later in her life. As she matured, the subject matter of her painting shifted from aboriginal themes to landscapes, and in particular, forest scenes. As a writer, Carr was one of the earliest chroniclers of life in British Columbia. The Canadian Encyclopedia describes her as a "Canadian icon"