Died on December 13

558 Childebert I a Frankish King of the Merovingian dynasty, as third of the four sons of Clovis I who shared the kingdom of the Franks upon their father's death in 511. He was one of the sons of Saint Clotilda, born at Reims. He reigned as King of Paris from 511 to 558 and Orléans from 524 to 558
769 Du Hongjian an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Daizong. He was known, and much criticized by traditional Chinese historians, for his devotion to Buddhism
838 Pepin I of Aquitaine King of Aquitaine and Duke of Maine.
1048 Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī a Persian Muslim scholar and polymath from the Khwarezm region.
1124 Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II , born Guy of Burgundy, reigned from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124. His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms in 1122
1126 Henry IX Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria from 1120 to 1126.
1213 William of Winchester Lord of Lüneburg the fifth and youngest son of Duke Henry the Lion and Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony, the eldest daughter of Henry II of England.
1239 Albert IV Count of Habsburg Count of Habsburg in the Aargau and a progenitor of the royal House of Habsburg.
1250 Frederick II Holy Roman Emperor one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous; however, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Professor Donald Detwiler, who wrote:
1315 Gaston I Count of Foix the 9th Count of Foix, the 22nd Viscount of Béarn and Co-Prince of Andorra.
1393 William II Duke of Jülich the second Duke of Jülich and the sixth William in the House of Jülich. He was the second son of William I of Jülich and Joanna of Hainaut
1404 Albert I Duke of Bavaria a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat
1466 Donatello None
1516 Johannes Trithemius a German Benedictine abbot and a polymath active in the German Renaissance, as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer and occultist. He took considerable influence on the development of early modern and modern occultism; among his students were Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and Paracelsus
1521 Manuel I of Portugal the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, it was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions and with a global dimension, for the first time in history, during Manuel's reign
1528 Casimir II Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn since 1477, ruler over Koźle during 1479–1509, since 1493 ruler over Wołów, over Pszczyna during 1498–1517, from 1506 over Opava, Duke of Głogów since 1506. Also he was Landeshauptmann General of Silesia during 1497–1504 and 1507–1517, since 1517 until his death, Landeshauptmann over the Upper Silesia
1532 Solomon Molcho a Portuguese mystic and pseudomessiah. A "New Christian" who reverted to Judaism, Molcho declared himself the Messiah, was convicted of apostasy by the Inquisition and was ordered burned at the stake
1557 Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia an Italian mathematician, engineer , a surveyor and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice. He published many books, including the first Italian translations of Archimedes and Euclid, and an acclaimed compilation of mathematics. Tartaglia was the first to apply mathematics to the investigation of the paths of cannonballs, known as ballistics, in his Nova Scientia, “A New Science;” his work was later partially validated and partially superseded by Galileo's studies on falling bodies. He also published a treatise on retrieving sunken ships
1565 Conrad Gessner a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer. He was well known as a botanist, physician and classical linguist. His five-volume Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology, and the flowering plant genus Gesneria and its family Gesneriaceae are named after him. A genus of moths is also named Gesneria after him. He is denoted by the author abbreviation Gesner when citing a botanical name
1585 Luigi Groto a blind Italian poet, lutenist, playwright and actor. Groto was born in Veneto and lost his sight eight days after birth. He studied philosophy and literature with such success that at the age of 15 he was already a public orator. He was often in Venice as an envoy from Veneto, and entertained with public performances of his songs. In 1565 he was appointed president of the newly founded Academy of Illustrati of Adria. He died in Venice, having just come from the theater where he had played the role of the blind King Oedipus. In 1623 Filippo Bonaffino set some of his poetry to music in a book of madrigals
1621 Catherine Stenbock Queen of Sweden between 1552 and 1560 as the third and last wife of King Gustav She was the daughter of Gustaf Olofsson Stenbock and Brita Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, who was the sister of the King's previous consort, Margareta Leijonhufvud. She was the sister of Ebba Stenbock
1622 Johannes Vodnianus Campanus a Czech humanist, composer, pedagogue, poet, and dramatist. He was born in Vodňany , in southern Bohemia. He studied at the University of Prague and in 1596 and was made Master of Liberal Arts there. He became a teacher in Prague and Kutná Hora. From 1603 he taught Greek and Latin at the University of Prague. He also taught history and Latin poetry. He was repeatedly appointed as dean, prorector, and rector of this university
1629 Mikołaj Oleśnicki the younger a Polish nobleman and latterly voivode of Lublin. He was son of Jan Oleśnicki, lord of Chmielnik in the voivodie of Sandomir His uncle was Lord Mikołaj Oleśnicki the elder a Polish Calvinist nobleman who established the first Protestant academy in Poland at Pińczów in 1550, and his aunt Zofia Oleśnicka was the first notable Polish woman poet
1638 Catherine of Sweden Countess Palatine of Kleeburg a Swedish princess and a Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken as the consort of her second cousin John Casimir of Palatinate-Zweibrücken. She is known as the periodical foster-mother of Queen Christina of Sweden
1641 Jane Frances de Chantal a Roman Catholic Saint, who founded a religious order after the death of her husband.
1683 Anna Sophia II Abbess of Quedlinburg a German noblewoman who reigned as Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg under the name Anna Sophia II.
1693 Willem van de Velde the Elder a Dutch Golden Age seascape painter.
1693 Dosoftei a Moldavian Metropolitan, scholar, poet and translator.
1716 Charles de La Fosse born in Paris.
1721 Alexander Selkirk a Scottish sailor who spent more than four years as a castaway after being marooned on an uninhabited island in the South Pacific Ocean.
1729 Anthony Collins an English philosopher, and a proponent of deism.
1740 Benedetto Erba Odescalchi an Italian Cardinal and Archbishop of Milan from 1712 to 1736.
1754 Mahmud I the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1754.
1758 Noël Doiron a leader of the Acadians, renown for the decisions he made during the Deportation of the Acadians. Doiron was deported on a vessel named the Duke William. The sinking of the Duke William was one of the worst marine disasters in Canadian history. The captain of the Duke William, William Nichols, described Noel Doiron as the "head prisoner" on board the ship and as the "father" to all the Acadians on Ile Jean
1767 Antoine La Vallette a French jesuit clergyman, Superior of the Martinique missions, whose bankruptcy led to the suppression of the Society of Jesus in France.
1769 Christian Fürchtegott Gellert a German poet, one of the forerunners of the golden age of German literature that was ushered in by Lessing.
1770 Johann Heinrich Hartmann Bätz a German-Dutch organ builder.
1783 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin Swedish astronomer and demographer.
1784 Samuel Johnson an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and has been described as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is also the subject of "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature": James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson
1797 Louis Legendre a French politician of the Revolution period.
1813 Antoine-Augustin Parmentier remembered as a vocal promoter of the potato as a food source for humans in France and throughout Europe. His many other contributions to nutrition and health included establishing the first mandatory smallpox vaccination campaign and pioneering the extraction of sugar from sugar beets. Parmentier also founded a school of breadmaking, and studied methods of conserving food, including refrigeration
1814 Charles-Joseph 7th Prince of Ligne Lamoral, 7th Prince de Ligne in French; in German Karl-Joseph Lamoral 7. Fürst von Ligne : was a Field marshal and writer, and member of the princely family of Ligne
1814 Jean-Baptiste Broussier a French Divisional General of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
1817 Pál Kitaibel a Hungarian botanist and chemist.
1818 Edward Law 1st Baron Ellenborough an English judge. After serving as a Member of Parliament and Attorney General, he became Lord Chief Justice
1820 Ferenc Széchényi the founder of the Hungarian National Library and National Museum in Budapest. The library is named after him the National Széchényi Library. He was the father of István Széchenyi
1823 Antonio Nariño an ideological Colombian precursor and one of the early political and military leaders of the independence movement in the New Granada.
1826 Louise d'Aumont the only child and daughter of Louis Marie d'Aumont, duc d'Aumont , and his wife, Louise Jeanne de Durfort, duchesse Mazarin et de La Meilleraye.
1827 Fabrizio Ruffo an Italian cardinal and politician, who led the popular anti-republican Sanfedismo movement.
1832 Christian Daniel Beck a German philologist, historian, theologian and antiquarian, one of the most learned men of his time.