Born on December 14

704 Aldfrith of Northumbria king of Northumbria from 685 until his death. He is described by early writers such as Bede, Alcuin and Stephen of Ripon as a man of great learning. Some of his works and some letters written to him survive. His reign was relatively peaceful, marred only by disputes with Bishop Wilfrid, a major figure in the early Northumbrian church
950 Al-Farabi a renowned scientist and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age. He was also a cosmologist, logician, and musician, representing the multidisciplinary approach of muslim scientists
1009 Emperor Go-Suzaku the 69th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1194 Berengaria of Portugal a Portuguese infanta, later Queen consort of Denmark. She was the fifth daughter of Portuguese King Sancho I and Dulce of Aragon. She married Danish King Valdemar II and was the mother of Danish kings Eric IV, Abel and Christopher I
1332 Frederick III Landgrave of Thuringia the son of Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen and Mathilde of Bavaria.
1546 Tycho Brahe a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in Scania, then part of Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden. Tycho was well known in his lifetime as an astronomer, astrologer and alchemist, and has been described more recently as "the first competent mind in modern astronomy to feel ardently the passion for exact empirical facts."
1559 Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola a Spanish dramatist and poet.
1586 Georg Calixtus a German Lutheran theologian who looked to reconcile all Christendom by removing all unimportant differences.
1599 Pieter van Laer a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre scenes, active for over a decade in Rome, where his nickname was Il Bamboccio. Artists working in his style became known as the Bamboccianti
1607 John Kemény (prince) a Hungarian aristocrat, writer and prince of Transylvania.
1616 William Hamilton 2nd Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman who supported both Royalist and Presbyterian causes during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
1625 Barthélemy d'Herbelot a French Orientalist.
1631 Anne Conway Viscountess Conway an English philosopher whose work, in the tradition of the Cambridge Platonists, was an influence on Leibniz. Conway's thought is original as it is rationalist philosophy, with hallmarks of gynocentric concerns and patterns, and in that sense it was unique among seventeenth-century systems
1654 Danylo Apostol in Moldavia-born Zaporozhian Cossack, who served in Russian Empire as Hetman of Zaporozhian Host of Left-bank of Dnieper. Daniel Apostol was forefather of Russian noble family Muravyov-Apostol
1655 Philip Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal the son of William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg. He was the first landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal from 1663 to 1721 and the founder of the fifth branch of the house of Hesse
1670 Jean-Baptiste Dubos a French author.
1678 Daniel Neal an English historian.
1698 Crown Prince Friedrich Ludwig heir to the duchy of Württemberg.
1713 Martin Knutzen a German philosopher, a disciple of Alexander Baumgarten and teacher of Immanuel Kant, to whom he introduced the physics of Newton.
1720 Justus Möser a German jurist and social theorist.
1727 François-Hubert Drouais a French painter and the father of Jean-Germain Drouais.
1730 Capel Bond an English organist and composer.
1730 James Bruce a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia, where he traced the origins of the Blue Nile.
1734 Oluf Gerhard Tychsen a German Orientalist and Hebrew scholar. He is known today as one of the founding fathers of Islamic numismatics
1737 Maximilian Anton Karl Count Baillet de Latour a general in Austrian service during the French Revolutionary Wars.
1738 Jan Antonín Koželuh a renowned Bohemian composer from Velvary. He was a pupil of Josef Seger. He studied in Vienna and was a concert master in Vitus Cathedral for thirty years; his work includes both church and concert works. As one of the most respected Czech authors of his time, he also composed serious Italian opera: Allesandro nell' Indie was performed in 1769 and Demofoonte in 1772. He was the organist at the Strahov Monastery for almost forty years
1739 Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours a French writer, economist, and government official. During the French Revolution, he, his two sons and their families emigrated to the United States
1766 Louis-François Bertin a French journalist. He had a younger brother – Louis-François Bertin de Vaux , two sons – Edouard François and Louis-Marie François , and a daughter - Louise Bertin
1773 Johannes Gossner born at Hausen near Augsburg.
1775 Philander Chase an Episcopal Church bishop, educator, and pioneer of the United States western frontier in Ohio and Illinois. He was the brother of Dudley Chase, and the uncle of Dudley Chase Denison and Salmon Chase
1775 Thomas Cochrane 10th Earl of Dundonald a Scottish naval flag officer of the Royal Navy and radical politician.
1777 Sophia Campbell an early Australian settler.
1780 Karl Nesselrode a Russian Empire diplomat of German descent. His mother was Jewish by origin and Protestant by faith. For forty years Nesselrode as foreign minister guided Russian policy; he was a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance
1784 Princess Maria Antonia of Naples and Sicily the youngest daughter of Ferdinand, King of Naples and Sicily, and Maria Carolina of Austria. As the wife of the future Ferdinand VII of Spain, then heir apparent to the Spanish throne, she held the title of Princess of Asturias
1787 Joaquín Mosquera a Neogranadine statesman and a Founding Father of Colombia and served as the 3rd and 5th President of Gran Colombia, and as the 3rd Vice President of the Republic of New Granada. During the administration of President Simón Bolívar, he was named as the 1st Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the nascent states of Peru, the United Provinces of South America, and Chile with the purpose of creating unity amongst the South American nations
1787 Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife, Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este. She was a member of the House of Austria-Este, a branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
1789 Maria Agata Szymanowska a Polish composer and one of the first professional virtuoso pianists of the 19th century. She toured extensively throughout Europe, especially in the 1820s, before settling permanently in Petersburg. In the Russian imperial capital, she composed for the court, gave concerts, taught music, and ran an influential salon
1791 Charles Wolfe an Irish poet, chiefly remembered for "The Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna" which achieved popularity in 19th century poetry anthologies.
1791 Johan Ludvig Heiberg (poet) born in Copenhagen.
1792 Zinaida Volkonskaya a Russian writer, poet, singer, composer, salonist and lady in waiting.
1794 Erastus Corning an American businessman and politician.
1800 Josef Kriehuber an Austrian lithographer and painter. He made numerous portraits for nobility and government officials. Josef Kriehuber left more than 3000 lithographs, with portraits of many people
1808 Edouard De Bièfve a Belgian history and portrait painter who was one of the leading representatives of the romantic movement in Belgium.
1812 Charles Canning 1st Earl Canning an English statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
1815 Hyde Clarke an English engineer, philologist and author.
1821 Gustav Graef a German painter, primarily of portraits and historical subjects.
1824 Pierre Puvis de Chavannes a French painter, who became the co-founder and president of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and whose work influenced many other artists. Though his reputation has since declined, he was a prominent painter in the early Third Republic. Émile Zola described his work as 'an art made of reason, passion, and will.'
1831 Arsenio Martínez-Campos y Antón a Spanish officer, who rose against the First Spanish Republic in a military revolution in 1874 and restored Spain's Bourbon dynasty. Later he became Captain-General of Cuba. As soldier and politician, he took part in the wars in Africa, Mexico, Cuba and the last Carlist war
1840 Mykhailo Starytsky a Ukrainian writer, poet, and playwright. He was the cousin of the famous Ukrainian composer Mykola Lysenko and a father-in-law to Ivan Steshenko. He was orphaned early in life and raised by Lysenko's father, so he was able to supply much of the information for the composer's biography. Starytsky wrote librettos, songs, stories, dramas and poems. Later in life, Starytsky worked with Lysenko, collecting Ukrainian folk songs and transforming them into plays and operas for which Starystky wrote the librettos. He eventually switched from writing scripts for theatre to writing books. Starystky is currently remembered for his work with Lysenko, as well as his later poetry and novels
1841 Louise Héritte-Viardot a French singer, pianist and composer. She was born in Paris, the daughter of Pauline Viardot-Garcia and Louis Viardot, niece of Maria Malibran and sister to composer and conductor Paul Viardot