December 14 events in history

557 Constantinople is severely damaged by an earthquake
835 Sweet Dew Incident: Emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty conspires to kill the powerful eunuchs of the Tang court, but the plot is foiled
1287 St. Lucia's flood: The Zuiderzee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses, killing over 50,000 people
1542 Princess Mary Stuart becomes Mary, Queen of Scots
1751 The Theresian Military Academy is founded as the first military academy in the world
1782 The Montgolfier brothers' first balloon lifts off on its first test flight
1812 The French invasion of Russia comes to an end as the remnants of the Grande Armée are expelled from Russia
1814 War of 1812: The Royal Navy seizes control of Lake Borgne, Louisiana
1819 Alabama becomes the 22nd U.S. state
1836 The Toledo War unofficially ends
1896 The Glasgow Underground Railway is opened by the Glasgow District Subway Company
1900 Quantum mechanics: Max Planck presents a theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law
1902 The Commercial Pacific Cable Company lays the first Pacific telegraph cable, from San Francisco to Honolulu
1903 The Wright brothers make their first attempt to fly with the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
1907 The schooner Thomas W. Lawson runs aground and founders near the Hellweather's Reef within the Isles of Scilly in a gale. The pilot and 15 seamen die
1909 New South Wales Premier Charles Wade signs the Seat of Government Surrender Act 1909, formally completing the transfer of State land to the Commonwealth to create the Australian Capital Territory
1911 Roald Amundsen '​s team, comprising himself, Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, and Oscar Wisting, becomes the first to reach the South Pole
1913 Haruna, the fourth and last Kongō-class ship, launches, eventually becoming one of the Japanese workhorses during World War I and World War II
1914 Lisandro de la Torre and others found the Democratic Progressive Party (Partido Demócrata Progresista, PDP) at the Hotel Savoy, Buenos Aires, Argentina
1918 Friedrich Karl von Hessen, a German prince elected by the Parliament of Finland to become King Väinö I, renounces the Finnish throne
1918 Portuguese President Sidónio Pais is assassinated
1939 Winter War: The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations for invading Finland
1941 World War II: Japan signs a treaty of alliance with Thailand
1946 The United Nations General Assembly votes to establish its headquarters in New York, New York
1947 Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, home of Real Madrid C.F., staged its first football match
1955 Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania and Spain join the United Nations
1958 The 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition becomes the first to reach the southern pole of inaccessibility
1961 Tanganyika joins the United Nations
1962 NASA's Mariner 2 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Venus
1963 The dam containing the Baldwin Hills Reservoir bursts, killing five people and damaging hundreds of homes in Los Angeles, California
1964 American Civil Rights Movement: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States – The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Congress can use the Constitution's Commerce Clause to fight discrimination
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War: Over 200 of East Pakistan '​s intellectuals are executed by the Pakistan Army and their local allies. (The date is commemorated in Bangladesh as Martyred Intellectuals Day.)
1972 Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of the Apollo 17 mission
1981 Arab–Israeli conflict: Israel's Knesset ratifies the Golan Heights Law, extending Israeli law to the occupied Golan Heights
1983 The third Congress of the Communist Youth of Greece starts
1988 The ET3 television network is launched in Thessaloniki, Greece
1992 War in Abkhazia: Siege of Tkvarcheli – A helicopter carrying evacuees from Tkvarcheli is shot down, resulting in at least 52 deaths, including 25 children. The incident catalyses more concerted Russian military intervention on behalf of Abkhazia
1994 Construction begins on the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River
1995 Yugoslav Wars: The Dayton Agreement is signed in Paris by the leaders of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina
1999 Torrential rains cause flash floods in Vargas, Venezuela, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths, the destruction of thousands of homes, and the complete collapse of the state's infrastructure
2003 Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf narrowly escapes an assassination attempt
2004 The Millau Viaduct, the tallest bridge in the world, is formally inaugurated near Millau, France
2008 Muntadhar al-Zaidi throws his shoes at then-U.S. President George W. Bush during a press conference in Baghdad, Iraq
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: Twenty-eight people, including the gunman, are killed in Sandy Hook, Connecticut
2013 A reported coup attempt in South Sudan leads to continued fighting and hundreds of casualties