Born on December 15

37 Nero Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death
130 Lucius Verus Roman Emperor from 161 to 169. He ruled with Marcus Aurelius as co-emperor from 161 until his own death in 169
1128 Fulco I Margrave of Milan the ancestor of the Italian line of the House of Este.
1242 Prince Munetaka the sixth shogun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan who reigned from 1252 to 1266.
1291 Aymon Count of Savoy Count of Savoy from 1329 to 1343.
1447 Albert IV Duke of Bavaria from 1467 Duke of Bavaria-Munich, from 1503 Duke of the reunited Bavaria.
1567 Christoph Demantius a German composer, music theorist, writer and poet. He was an exact contemporary of Monteverdi, and represented a transitional phase in German Lutheran music from the polyphonic Renaissance style to the early Baroque
1588 Adolf Frederick I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from his father's death in 1592 until 1628 and again from 1631 to 1658. Between 1634 and 1648 Adolf Frederick also ruled the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin as its administrator
1595 Jerzy Ossoliński a Polish nobleman , Crown Court Treasurer from 1632, governor of Sandomierz from 1636, Reichsfürst since 1634, Crown Deputy Chancellor from 1639, Great Crown Chancellor from 1643, sheriff of Bydgoszcz , Lubomel , Puck and Bolim , magnate, politician and diplomat. Famous for being extensively educated, he was a skillful politician and a persuasive public speaker
1610 David Teniers the Younger a Flemish artist born in Antwerp, the son of David Teniers the Elder. His son David Teniers III and his grandson David Teniers IV were also painters. His wife Anna, née Anna Breughel, was the daughter of Jan Brueghel the Elder and the granddaughter of Pieter Bruegel the Elder
1634 Thomas Kingo a Danish bishop, poet and hymn-writer born at Slangerup, near Copenhagen. His work marked the high point of Danish baroque poetry
1648 Gregory King an English genealogist, engraver and statistician.
1657 Michel Richard Delalande a French Baroque composer and organist who was in the service of King Louis XIV. He was one of the most important composers of grands motets. He also wrote orchestral suites known as Simphonies pour les Soupers du Roy and ballets. His works foreshadowed the cantatas of JS Bach and the Water Music and oratorios of Handel
1664 Azim-ush-Shan the second son of Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I, by his second wife, Maharajkumari Amrita Bai Sahiba. He was also the grandson of emperor Aurangzeb, during whose reign, he was the subedar of Bengal Subah, Bihar and Odisha from 1697 to his death in 1712, at the age of 47
1667 Ernest Louis Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1678 to 1739. His parents were Landgrave Louis VI of Hesse-Darmstadt and Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
1684 James Jurin an English scientist and physician, particularly remembered for his early work in capillary action and in the epidemiology of smallpox vaccination. He was a staunch proponent of the work of Sir Isaac Newton and often used his gift for satire in Newton's defence
1686 Jean-Joseph Fiocco a Flemish composer of the high and late Baroque period.
1701 Juan de Iriarte a Spanish writer, French and English translator in the Royal Chancery, Hellenist and latinist.
1713 Welbore Ellis 1st Baron Mendip a British statesman. He held a number of political offices, including briefly serving as Secretary for the Colonies in 1782 during the American War of Independence
1719 Louis IX Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg
1732 Carl Gotthard Langhans a Prussian builder and architect. His works are among the earliest buildings in the German classicism movement. His best-known work is the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
1744 Jean-François Pierre Peyron a French Neoclassical painter.
1750 Nicolas Joseph Laurent Gilbert a French poet born at Fontenoy-le-Château, Vosges, Lorraine.
1760 David Heinrich Hoppe a German pharmacist, botanist and physician who was a native of Bruchhausen-Vilsen. Hoppe is remembered for contributions made to the study of alpine flora
1778 Godert van der Capellen a Dutch statesman from Utrecht.
1784 Ludwig Devrient a German actor, noted for his playing in the works of Shakespeare and Schiller.
1784 Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski a Polish explorer, poet, orientalist and horse expert.
1789 Carlos Soublette President of Venezuela 1837-1839 and 1843–1847, and a hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
1792 Ulysses F. Doubleday a U.S. Representative from New York
1793 Henry Charles Carey a leading 19th-century economist of the American School of capitalism, and chief economic adviser to U.S. President Abraham Lincoln
1797 Karl Friedrich Theodor Krause a German anatomist born in Hanover.
1802 János Bolyai a Hungarian mathematician, one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry — a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines. The discovery of a consistent alternative geometry that might correspond to the structure of the universe helped to free mathematicians to study abstract concepts irrespective of any possible connection with the physical world
1802 Jean-Daniel Colladon a Swiss physicist.
1802 Honoré Théodoric d'Albert de Luynes remembered most for the collection he gave to the Cabinet des Médailles in 1862.
1804 Ernst Friedrich August Rietschel a German sculptor.
1810 Peter Andreas Munch usually known as A. Munch, was a Norwegian historian, known for his work on the medieval history of Norway. Munch’s scholarship included Norwegian archaeology, geography, ethnography, linguistics, and jurisprudence. He was also noted for his Norse Legendary saga translations
1817 Raffaello Carboni an Italian revolutionary and writer. He is primarily remembered now as the author of the main eyewitness account of events at the Eureka Stockade in Ballarat, Australia
1823 August Davidov a Russian mathematician and engineer, professor at Moscow University, and author of works on differential equations with partial derivatives, definite integrals, and the application of probability theory to statistics, and textbooks on elementary mathematics which were repeatedly reprinted from the 1860s to the 1920s. He was president of the Moscow Mathematical Society from 1866 to 1885
1824 Juliusz Kossak a Polish historical painter and master illustrator who specialized in battle scenes, military portraits and horses. He was the progenitor of an artistic family that spanned four generations, father of painter Wojciech Kossak and grandfather of painter Jerzy Kossak
1826 Robert Waterman (governor) an American politician. He served as the 17th governor of California from September 12, 1887 until January 8, 1891
1831 Lewis Redner an American musician, best known as the composer of the popular Christmas carol "St. Louis", better known as "O Little Town of Bethlehem"
1832 Gustave Eiffel a French civil engineer and architect. A graduate of the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, he made his name with various bridges for the French railway network, most famously the Garabit viaduct. He is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, France. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel concentrated his energies on research into meteorology and aerodynamics, making important contributions in both fields
1834 Charles Augustus Young one of the foremost solar spectroscopist astronomers in the United States, died of pneumonia after a brief illness, at his home in Hanover, New Hampshire, on 4 January 1908. He observed solar eclipses and worked on spectroscopy of the Sun. He observed a solar flare with a spectroscope on 3 August, 1872, and also noted that it coincided with a magnetic storm on Earth
1837 E. W. Bullinger an Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and ultradispensationalist theologian.
1838 Gustav Neumann a German chess master.
1843 Albert Benjamin Simpson a Canadian preacher, theologian, author, and founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance , an evangelical Protestant denomination with an emphasis on global evangelism.
1844 Alfred East an English painter.
1846 Eusebi Güell a Catalan entrepreneur who profited greatly from the industrial revolution in Catalonia in the late 19th century. He married a daughter of the second Marquis of Comillas, Luisa Isabel Lopez y Bru, in 1871 and the couple had ten children. One of Güell's daughters, ca:Isabel Güell i López, became a noted female composer
1850 Dmitri Feodorovich Trepov Head of Moscow police; Governor-General of Petersburg with extra-ordinary powers; Assistant Interior Minister with full control of the police. His attempts to restore order were overwhelmed by the revolution of 1905; he retained influence with the Tsar Nicholas II, when appointed as the Commandant of the Imperial Palace
1850 Nikolai Sudzilovsky a revolutionary and scientist.