Born on December 16

1364 Manuel III of Trebizond Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417. He was the son of Emperor Alexios III of Trebizond by Theodora Kantakouzene
1378 Secondotto Marquess of Montferrat the Margrave of Montferrat from 1372 to his death, the third of the Greek Palaeologan dynasty. His name Secondotto may derive from his being the second Otto to rule Montferrat in his own right, though he would really be Otto III. More probably it is derived from Saint Secundus , the patron saint of Asti, which his father treated as the capital of the marquisate. The Otto may be in honour of Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, a close ally of his father
1485 Catherine of Aragon Queen of England from 1509 until 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Prince Arthur.
1522 Honoré I Lord of Monaco Lord of Monaco from 22 August 1523 to 7 October 1581.
1534 Lucas Osiander the Elder a German pastor of the Evangelischen Landeskirche in Württemberg. He was a son of the reformer Andreas Osiander and father to Lucas Osiander the Younger
1584 John Selden an English jurist and a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law. He was known as a polymath showing true intellectual depth and breadth; John Milton hailed Selden in 1644 as "the chief of learned men reputed in this land."
1614 Eberhard III Duke of Württemberg ruled as Duke of Württemberg from 1628 until his death in 1674.
1622 Cort Adeler the name of honour given to Kurt Sivertsen, a Norwegian seaman, who rendered distinguished service to the Danish and Dutch navies, and also to the Republic of Venice against the Turks.
1669 Joseph-Anne-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla a French Jesuit missionary to China.
1716 Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini a French diplomat and writer. He was the sixth member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1742. In English, his title is written, the Duke of Nivernais
1717 Elizabeth Carter an English poet, classicist, writer and translator, and a member of the Bluestocking Circle.
1740 Georg Magnus Sprengtporten a Swedish, Finnish and Russian politician, younger brother of Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten.
1742 Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He was made an honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock, and was nicknamed "German: Marschall Vorwärts" by the soldiers he commanded because of his aggressive approach in warfare
1775 Jane Austen an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism, biting irony and social commentary as well as her acclaimed plots have gained her historical importance among scholars and critics
1775 François-Adrien Boieldieu a French composer, mainly of operas, often called "the French Mozart".
1776 Johann Wilhelm Ritter a German chemist, physicist and philosopher. He was born in Samitz near Haynau in Silesia , and died in Munich
1778 John Ordronaux (privateer) one of the most successful privateers of the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the war he commanded two ships, Marengo, then Prince de Neufchatel. With these he captured or destroyed about thirty British merchant ships, outran about seventeen British warships and brought back goods to the USA worth between $250,000 and $300,000
1787 Mary Russell Mitford an English author and dramatist. She was born at Alresford, Hampshire. Her place in English literature is as the author of Our Village. This series of sketches of village scenes and vividly drawn characters was based upon life in Three Mile Cross, a hamlet in the parish of Shinfield, near Reading in Berkshire, where she lived
1790 Leopold I of Belgium from 21 July 1831 the first King of the Belgians, following Belgium's independence from the Netherlands. He was the founder of the Belgian line of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His children included Leopold II of Belgium and Carlota of Mexico, Empress-Consort of Maximilian I of Mexico. He was a maternal uncle and adviser of Queen Victoria
1792 Antonio Corazzi an Italian architect who designed a number of buildings in Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
1804 Viktor Bunyakovsky a Russian mathematician, member and later vice president of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
1805 Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire a French zoologist and an authority on deviation from normal structure. In 1854 he coined the term "éthologie"
1812 Stuart Donaldson the first Premier of the Colony of New South Wales.
1817 Saint-René Taillandier a French writer and critic.
1818 Matija Ban a Serbo-Croatian poet, dramatist, and playwright, born in the city of Dubrovnik, who became known as one of the first Catholics from Dubrovnik who expressed a Serb nationality. He settled in Serbia in 1844, and engaged in various diplomatic missions in service of the Principality of Serbia
1818 Karl Müller (bryologist) a German bryologist born in Allstedt.
1825 Henry Heth a career United States Army officer who became a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
1826 Giovanni Battista Donati an Italian astronomer.
1827 Jean Abraham Chrétien Oudemans a Dutch astronomer. He was the director of the Utrecht Observatory from 1875 until 1898, when he retired
1828 Alexander Ross Clarke a British geodesist, primarily remembered for his calculation of the Principle Triangulation of Britain , the calculation of the Figure of the Earth and one of the most important text books of Geodesy.
1830 Kálmán Tisza the Hungarian prime minister between 1875 and 1890. He is credited for the formation of a consolidated Magyar government, the foundation of the new Liberal Party and major economic reforms that would both save and eventually lead to a government with popular support. He is the longest-serving head of government in the history of Hungary
1830 Samuel Garland Jr. an American attorney from Virginia and Confederate general during the American Civil War. He was killed in action during the Maryland Campaign while defending Fox's Gap at the Battle of South Mountain
1832 Wilhelm Julius Foerster a German astronomer. His name can also be written Förster, but is usually written "Foerster" even in most German sources where 'ö' is otherwise used in the text
1833 Károly Lotz a German-Hungarian painter.
1834 Léon Walras a French mathematical economist. He formulated the marginal theory of value and pioneered the development of general equilibrium theory
1836 Ernst von Bergmann a Baltic German surgeon. He is a pioneer of aseptic surgery
1850 Hans Ernst August Buchner a German bacteriologist who was born and raised in Munich. He was the older brother of Eduard Buchner , winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1852 Sava Mutkurov a Bulgarian officer and politician. One of only three recipients of the Order of Bravery 1st grade, he was among the chief architects of the Bulgarian unification and, as an officer in the young Bulgarian Army, one of its defendants in the Serbo–Bulgarian War. He also served as one of the regents of the Principality of Bulgaria after Prince Alexander of Battenberg's abdication and was Minister of War in Stefan Stambolov's government
1857 Nicholas Hartwig a Russian ambassador to Persia and Serbia. An ardent Pan-Slavist, he was said to be "more Serbian than the Serbs" and in the period prior to World War I was thought by many to practically control the policy of the Serbian government. He encouraged Serbia to stand up to Austria-Hungary and may therefore be seen as one of the causes of the war
1857 Edward Emerson Barnard an American astronomer. He was commonly known as E. Barnard, and was recognized as a gifted observational astronomer. He is best known for his discovery of Barnard's Star in 1916, which is named in his honor
1858 Sigmund Mogulesko a singer, actor, and composer in the Yiddish theater in New York City. He was born in Kalarash, Bessarabia and began singing in the local synagogue choir. Before reaching adolescence, he was paid nearly three times what teachers made, to sing in the synagogue of Chişinău. He moved on to Bucharest, Romania, where he was paid to sing in churches as well as synagogues, and started acting
1861 Frank W. Hunt the fifth Governor of Idaho from 1901 until 1903.
1861 Oscar Branch Colquitt the 25th Governor of Texas from January 17, 1911 to January 19, 1915. He was a member of the Democratic Party. Gov. Colquitt defended the actions of the Texas Rangers who allegedly crossed into Mexico in pursuit of the body of Clemente Vergara in March 1914
1861 Antonio de La Gándara a French painter, pastellist and draughtsman. La Gándara was born in Paris, France, but his father was of Spanish ancestry, born in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, and his mother was from England. La Gándara's talent was strongly influenced by both cultures. At only 15 years of age, La Gándara was admitted as a student of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Cabanel at the École des Beaux-Arts. Soon, he was recognized by the jury of the 1883 Salon des Champs-Élysées, who singled out the first work he ever exhibited: a portrait of Saint Sebastian
1863 Stepan Aghajanian an Armenian painter, People's Artist of Armenia. He is one of the main figures in Armenian fine arts of the 20th century, practiced various genres and was particularly distinguished as a portrait artist
1863 George Santayana a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. Santayana was raised and educated in the United States and identified himself as an American, although he always kept a valid Spanish passport. He wrote in English and is generally considered an American man of letters. At the age of forty-eight, Santayana left his position at Harvard and returned to Europe permanently, never to return to the United States. His last wish was to be buried in the Spanish pantheon in Rome
1863 Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst an Austrian aristocrat and statesman. He briefly served as Prime Minister of Austria in Austria–Hungary in 1906
1865 Olavo Bilac a Brazilian Parnassian poet, journalist and translator. Alongside Alberto de Oliveira and Raimundo Correia, he was a member of the "Parnassian Triad". Elected the "Prince of Brazilian Poets" in 1907 by the magazine Fon-Fon, he is famous for writing the lyrics of the Brazilian Flag Anthem
1865 Pauline of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus C.I.I.C. was an immigrant from Austria-Hungary to Brazil, who became the foundress of the Congregation of the Little Sisters of the Immaculate Conception, Religious Sisters who serve the poor. She became the first Brazilian to be proclaimed a saint by the Catholic Church, when she was canonized on 19 May 2002 by Pope John Paul Pauline suffered from diabetes for much of her life and is considered by some to be a patron saint of diabetics
1866 Wassily Kandinsky an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession — he was offered a professorship at the University of Dorpat — he began painting studies at the age of 30